Italy's human rights actions
In line with the priorities of Italy's 2019-2021 mandate in the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), Italy's human rights actions focus, in particular, on several priority issues: the fight against all forms of discrimination; a universal moratorium on the death penalty; the promotion of women's and girls' rights (including campaigns against female genital mutilation and early and forced marriages); the protection and promotion of children's rights (especially of vulnerable children); the protection of freedom of religion and belief and the rights of members of religious minorities; the fight against human trafficking; the promotion of the rights of disabled persons; the protection of the cultural heritage; the protection of human rights defenders.
At the same time, Italy has also committed to multiple other initiatives for the protection and promotion of human rights in line with the obligations undertaken at the international level to support civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. These initiatives have included the fight against racism, xenophobia and all forms of intolerance, anti-Semitism, discrimination —including discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity—, the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities, human rights education, promoting democracy and the rule of law, promoting freedom of opinion and expression and focussing on issues related to migration.
Italy attaches the highest priority to the international campaign for a moratorium on capital punishment, in the firm belief that the death penalty is an unacceptable violation of human dignity and has no added value in terms of the safety of citizens or the deterrence of crime, determining the dramatic irreversibility of any possible miscarriage of justice. Italy has promoted several initiatives in favour of a universal moratorium on the death penalty since the 1990’s. In December 2007 these initiatives led to the adoption by the UN General Assembly of the first resolution calling for a moratorium on the death penalty. The resolution was approved with 104 votes in favour, 54 against and 29 abstentions. Italy renewed its commitment to this cause the following year when it promoted, together with an interregional alliance formed by countries from all over the world, a second resolution on the moratorium. The resolution was approved by the General Assembly with a greater number of votes in favour and fewer votes against. Since then, resolutions on the universal moratorium on the death penalty have been approved by the UN General Assembly every two years. The last resolution on the matter was adopted by the General Assembly in plenary session in December 2018 with 121 votes in favour, 35 against and 32 abstentions, thus recording the highest number of favourable votes since the resolution was introduced in the General Assembly.
In July 2014, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MAECI) set up a task force with representatives from civil society organisations to coordinate Italy’s action and make it more effective in raising awareness among third countries to garner their support for the UN resolution on the universal moratorium before it was voted on by the Third Committee (the Committee on Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs) and subsequently in the General Assembly’s plenary session in New York.
Italy also actively participates in the negotiations within the framework of the biennial resolution for the abolition of the death penalty, in the United Nations Human Rights Council, regularly co-sponsoring it. The importance of moving towards the abolition of the death penalty is also regularly raised in bilateral dialogue with third countries, also in coordination with other EU countries.
Fight against other forms of discrimination
The principle of non-discrimination, in law and practice, and respect for the dignity of every individual constitute the core of Italy's international action in support of the protection and promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms worldwide. Italy supports and promotes numerous international initiatives in the fight against discrimination, attaching great importance to the fight against hate speech, online and offline. Italy traditionally supports, in particular, the resolutions of the United Nations Human Rights Council on the fight against all forms of racism, xenophobia and intolerance, as well as all forms of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Italy is part of the Equal Rights Coalition (ERC), a platform for international cooperation promoting the exchange of information and good practices on the rights of LGBTI persons. Italy is also part of the Global Equality Fund (GEF), an international fund set up in 2011, on the initiative of the US, to finance projects for protecting and promoting the rights of LGBTI people.
A country’s political, civil, social and economic development cannot take place without the full participation and involvement of women on an equal basis in decision-making, government choices and training and educational processes. Despite the significant progress made in recent decades, women and girls continue to be victims of physical and psychological violence, exploitation and heinous trafficking in many areas of the world.
Italy is strongly committed both bilaterally and multilaterally to the promotion of gender equality and female empowerment. Italy is part of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), actively participates in the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) and supports the numerous initiatives promoted on these issues each year within the UN. Italy has played an active role in pushing the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) which came into force in August 2014 and continues to encourage the widest support for this Convention.
Italy often puts forth specific recommendations to third countries regarding women's rights and to combat violence against women in the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) which monitors the human rights situation in UN member states every four years in Geneva.
Italy is actively engaged in international campaigns for the eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM) and early and forced marriages, not only via its diplomatic and negotiation channels but also through development cooperation. It promotes and actively participates in negotiations regarding the UN General Assembly and the UN Human Rights Council resolutions on these issues.
Italy supports international initiatives for the prevention of sexual violence in conflicts and emergencies, specifically the Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflicts Initiative and the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies. Within the framework of the zero tolerance policy towards acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, in September 2017 Italy joined the "Circle of Leadership" launched by the UN Secretary General Guterres to combat sexual abuse by UN civilian and military personnel and has signed the Voluntary Compact, through which it politically commits to roll out measures to prevent and combat sexual exploitation and abuse.
Italy is also active in its support for the Women, Peace and Security Agenda with actions fostering women’s participation in conflict resolution and the promotion of durable peace as well as initiatives that encourage the full and active participation of women in conflict prevention, management and resolution and post-conflict reconstruction efforts. Italy has supported the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 of 31.10.2000 on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) since it was first presented and has pushed for its full implementation as well as that of similar resolutions put forth within the UN, EU and NATO in following years. The WPS Agenda was included as one of Italy’s priorities within its mandate as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council and its G7 Presidency in 2017. Implementation of the Agenda has also been promoted within the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) during Italy’s 2018 Presidency. Italy is part of the WPS National Focal Points Network and the European Union’s Informal Task Force on UNSCR 1325. As part of Italy’s mandate in the Security Council, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, together with the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) and Women in International Security Italy (WIIS Italy), has launched a Mediterranean Women Mediators Network (MWMN) that will continue to work even beyond the time limit of the mandate. The Network, founded at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation headquarters on October 26, 2017, is among the activities laid out in Italy’s Third National Action Plan for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325.
In the two years since the launch event, the Network has grown in terms of participation and skills, also thanks to training courses organised for mediators and the numerous networking opportunities offered. The Network has started to consolidate at the local level, with the opening of the first Antennas in Cyprus (17 May 2019) and Turkey (29 June 2019) and the start of preparations for setting up Antennas in other Mediterranean countries. One of the main successes achieved so far by MWMN, recognised on several occasions by various partners and by the United Nations itself, is the participation of the Network's Libyan mediators in the Palermo Conference for Libya, in support of the 4 official women delegates attending. Collaboration with the United Nations (in particular, with the Office of the Secretary General, DPPA, Mediation Support Unit and UNWomen) and similar regional networks has also been strengthened, leading, among other things, to the creation of the Global Alliance of Regional Networks of Women Mediators, officially launched on 26 September last in New York, on the sidelines of the General Conference opening the 74th General Assembly of the United Nations. The event was jointly organized by the existing Regional Women Mediators Networks (the Mediterranean Women Mediators Network; FemWise - Africa, part of the African Union's peace and security architecture; the Nordic Women Mediators; Women Mediators across the Commonwealth, launched by the United Kingdom) and the countries and regional organisations that support them, including Italy. The creation of the Global Alliance aims to increase the participation and influence of women in peace processes, at all levels, through shared and concerted actions between networks that have specific characteristics, but pursue the same goals. The Alliance, which will maintain an informal nature, is therefore destined to embody a collective voice and to amplify the effectiveness of the actions by the individual networks, which will maintain their identities and characteristics.
On 3 and 4 December 2019, in collaboration with UNWomen, Italy organised a high-level seminar at the Foreign Ministry on "Strengthening women's participation in peace processes. What roles and responsibilities for Member States?". This event represented a fruitful discussion on the causes of the limited participation of women in peace processes; identifying concrete and innovative solutions to overcome them; undertaking specific commitments to ensure the effective and meaningful involvement of women in peace negotiations. The Seminar was also an important opportunity to confirm and enhance the role and commitment of our country in this specific sector and, more generally, for implementing the WPS Agenda, making it possible to highlight the most significant results achieved in recent years, with regard to concrete and specific projects implemented and/or promoted by Italy. With this in mind, we announced at the event our firm support for the "Commitment 2025" initiative, recently launched by Spain and Finland, which is in line with the Italian priorities. The Seminar was attended by all the mediators and experts in mediation that are part of MWMN, as well as government representatives of Member States; high-level representatives of the United Nations and regional organizations (EU, AU, ECOWAS, OSCE, NATO, League of Arab States); representatives of other regional networks of women mediators; representatives of civil society.
At national level, in December 2016, Italy adopted the third National Action Plan for the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. The Plan covers the 2016-2020 period and was drawn up with the active contribution of civil society. Including 7 Objectives and 44 Actions, it envisages qualifying initiatives on a national and international level. Ad hoc funds have been allocated by Parliament for the implementation of the Plan. Italy has thus become one of the few countries that ensure governmental contribution for the implementation of Agenda 1325 (2000).
At national level, in December 2016, Italy adopted the third National Action Plan for the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda. The Plan covers the 2016-2020 period and was drawn up with the active contribution of civil society. Including 7 Objectives and 44 Actions, it contains qualifying initiatives at national and international level. The Italian Parliament has earmarked ad hoc funds for the implementation of the Plan and Italy is now amongst the few countries that ensure a government contribution for the implementation of Agenda 1325 (2000).
Children are one of the vulnerable groups most exposed to human rights violations, especially in areas with armed conflict, post-conflict settings and in situations of underdevelopment, extreme poverty and social tensions.
Among the numerous initiatives to protect childhood and to promote the rights of minors taken at multilateral level, special mention should be made of the annual Resolutions passed by the UN General Assembly and of the Human Rights Council on the rights of the child, that were presented by the European Union jointly with the Group of Latin American Countries.
Italy supports initiatives aimed at protecting the rights of children in armed conflicts, implementing the principles laid out by the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict of 2000. Italy’s commitment in this area led to the adoption in the EU of the Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflicts and, within the UN, the inclusion of specific provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of UN peacekeeping operations.
Italy was one of the first signatory countries to the "Safe School Declaration", adopted in Oslo in 2015 with the aim of protecting education even in the context of armed conflict. It is constantly raising awareness of the Declaration, promoting it in all the relevant forums of the General Assembly and in the Security Council, and actively participating in all International Conferences on the Declaration (most recently, Palma Di Majorca in June 2019).
At the 33rd International Conference of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent (Geneva, 9-12 December 2019), Italy presented a solemn commitment open to other countries (the so-called "open pledge") to take all necessary actions to ensure that children can live in safety and enjoy their fundamental rights even in situations of conflict. The commitment promoted by Italy is aimed at preventing violence against children, also through initiatives aimed at providing continuity in education and facilitating access to humanitarian operations for children in conflict zones, as well as through awareness campaigns against the recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts.
Freedom of Belief and Religion
Given the several challenges affecting the peaceful coexistence of different religious groups in many parts of the world, Italy has been working with determination for a more effective international action for the protection of freedom of religion or belief and the rights of religious minorities.
Every year Italy, together with other EU Member States, promotes a Resolution at the UN General Assembly and at the Human Rights Council on the freedom of religion or belief, condemning all forms of religious intolerance and discrimination. At European level, mention should also be made of the “EU Guidelines on the freedom of religion or belief” adopted in 2013, aimed at intensifying the European Union’s action against Third Countries in the field of freedom of religion. At the initiative of Italy, the Guidelines also refer to the right to collectively exercise freedom of religion aimed at protecting minority religious groups.
Italy is also a member of the International Contact Group for Freedom of Religion or Belief (ICG - FORB), an inter-regional platform of more than twenty countries created in 2015 to promote and protect freedom of religion or belief in the world, by promoting good practices, identifying restrictive rules and practices regarding freedom of religion or belief, and the rights of religious minorities, and collaborating with a number of non-governmental partners, including religious organisations, civil society and universities.
Protection of cultural heritage
Italy promotes renewed action by the International Community in defence of the cultural heritage, which is the cradle of every civilization and the foundation of the historical identity and prosperity of societies. The right of access to and enjoyment of cultural heritage contributes to ensuring stability, peace and international security, and the destruction of our heritage, besides being a violation of international law, has a harmful impact on the stability and coexistence of peoples and communities. In this regard, our country fully supports the action taken by UNESCO to protect the cultural heritage in crisis areas, through the creation - on the basis of an Italian proposal - of a mechanism for emergency interventions and, in February 2016, we signed a Memorandum of Understanding with UNESCO, which, within the framework of the "United4Heritage" coalition, provides an "Italian Task Force" to UNESCO, with the participation of the Carabinieri Command for the Protection of Cultural Heritage (TPC).
In 2017, Italy supported and promoted initiatives on this issue also within the G7 Presidency and its mandate as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, and during the Italian Presidency of the OSCE in 2018. In particular, in March 2017, Italy, together with France, promoted a Security Council Resolution on the protection of cultural heritage and the fight against the illegal trafficking of cultural goods. Resolution 2347, adopted unanimously on 4 March 2017, contains important provisions which, if implemented by all players within the international community, will help combat ethnic and religious violence, also facilitating, in the longer term, the peace-building and national reconciliation processes.
Rights of the disabled
Italy is strongly committed to protecting and promoting the rights of people with disabilities, with a special focus on disabled people in emergency and post-conflict situations. The Italian commitment is aimed, in particular, at removing any attitudinal and environmental barriers preventing the full and effective participation of disabled people in society. Italy is a party to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, encouraging the widest possible adherence to the Convention and promoting its fundamental principles globally. We are committed to the development and implementation of awareness programs designed to improve the understanding of the needs of people with disabilities, also through numerous Italian Cooperation initiatives.
Fight against human trafficking
Human trafficking is a serious violation of human rights - to the point of representing a crime against humanity - and represents a serious threat to international peace and security. Italy is strongly committed to the issue, based on an approach centred on victims and their rights, with a special focus on the most vulnerable groups, including women and children. The Italian action, implemented in partnership with civil society and the United Nations, forcefully prioritises prevention and protection, including the legal protection of victims. We are party to the United Nations Convention against Organised Crime and its Optional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, promoting the widest possible adherence to this Protocol. Within the United Nations, we strongly support the activities and initiatives of the Special Rapporteur on the fight against trafficking in persons. Italy is also a party to the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (the so-called Warsaw Convention) and supports the activities of the Council of Europe's Group of Experts on the subject (GRETA) which, among other things, also monitors the implementation of the Convention.
Human Rights Defenders
According to the definition contained in EU Guidelines, “human rights defenders are those individuals, groups and organs of society that promote and protect universally recognised human rights and fundamental freedoms. Human rights defenders seek the promotion and protection of civil and political rights as well as the promotion, protection and realisation of economic, social and cultural rights. Human rights defenders also promote and protect the rights of members of groups such as indigenous communities.”
Italy recognises the central role that human rights defenders play in promoting a culture of respect of human rights and in supporting the victims of rape and abuse and is firmly convinced that an active civil society contributes to building inclusive, stable and prosperous societies. Italy is committed to defending the safety and rights of human rights defenders and will continue to actively support them and enhance its efforts against all forms of retaliation against them. In this respect Italy, in close coordination with its EU and OSCE member partners, promotes the enforcement of EU and OSCE guidelines on the matter, which constitute important working instruments for the whole diplomatic and consular network
During the Italian OSCE Chairmanship 2018, we hosted an international workshop at the Foreign Ministry dedicated to the protection of Human Rights Defenders.
EU Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters- homepage_en/3958/EU%20Guidelines%20on%20Human%20Rights%20Defenders
OSCE/ODIHR Guidelines on the Protection of Human Rights Defenders: https://www.osce.org/odihr/guidelines-on-the-protection-of-human-rights-defenders
Human rights education
Italy supports multilateral initiatives aimed at strengthening the promotion of human rights education, thus contributing to promoting respect for human dignity, fostering the development of the culture of dialogue and mutual understanding, contributing to strengthening the effective protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms by the State and civil society.
Among these initiatives, the R2P in Schools project, designed by Italy as part of its mandate in the UN Security Council, was launched in January 2018. The project, carried out by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs together with the Italian Ministry of University and Research, seeks to promulgate the principles of "Responsibility to Protect" (R2P) in schools and raise student awareness about the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms and the importance of establishing and implementing international principles to protect the civilian population.
Business and human rights
Italy, together with the other EU Member States, is strongly committed internationally to supporting Business and Human Rights. The basis of the EU's commitment are the "United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights", approved in 2011 by the Human Rights Council. In light of these principles, the EU has adopted both voluntary instruments and a set of binding rules on due diligence and access to remedy.
In 2016, Italy was among the first countries in the world to adopt - through a complex multi-stakeholder process - a five-year National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights, in accordance with the UN Guiding Principles. In 2018, Italy carried out a very innovative mid-term review of the document, consistently adopting an inclusive approach based on extensive consultations with industry experts and representatives of the business world, trade unions and non-governmental organizations. The wide-ranging Plan features over fifty measures and its implementation is managed by a steering group.
In 2014, preliminary discussions commenced in the Human Rights Council on the possibility of developing a legally binding international instrument on the human rights responsibilities of transnational corporations and enterprises.
Within the United Nations, human rights and fundamental freedoms are addressed within the Commission for Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs (Third Commission) of the General Assembly in New York and the Human Rights Council in Geneva.
The Third Commission examines about 70 draft resolutions on human rights each year. Once the draft resolutions are negotiated and approved, they are submitted for final adoption by the General Assembly. Italy actively participates in the negotiations of the Third Commission and has a leading role in numerous campaigns (including the one in favor of the universal moratorium on the use of the death penalty and the campaign against female genital mutilation).
The Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly which was established in 2006 with the task of promoting universal respect for and the protection of human rights, of intervening only in case of the violation thereof, and of favouring the coordination of the bodies of the United Nations system operating in the area of human rights.
The UNHRC has 47 Member States elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term, with the seats assigned according to the principle of fair geographical distribution. The Council convenes in an Ordinary Session three times a year (in March, June and September) and in a Special Session at the request of 1/3 of its members.
Italy is currently a member of the UNHRC for the three-year period 2019-2021, elected in October 2018 with the highest number of votes from the WEOG (Western European and Others Group) and, more in general, it was also positioned among the front runners of those elected by other regional groups. During its term, Italy will place special attention on several priority issues, including:
- combating all forms of discrimination
- the rights of women
- the rights of children
- the universal moratorium on the death penalty
- the freedom of religion or creed and the protection of religious minorities,
- the fight against trafficking in human beings
- the rights of people with disabilities
- the protection of cultural and religious heritage
the defenders of human rights (Full document of the “Voluntary Pledges and Commitments" - Application brochure)
Previously, Italy had already been a member of the UNHRC for two three-year terms: from 2007 to 2010 and then again from 2011 to 2014.
Italy actively participates in the various activities of the UNHRC, including the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) mechanism, which involves a review of the human rights records of all UN Member States once every four years.
On 4 November 2019, Italy was reviewed in connection with the Third Cycle of the UPR receiving recommendations from 121 States. The Report of the session was adopted by the UNHRC on 12 March 2020 (and is available for consultation on the website of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights: UPR Italy). Italy accepted 95% of the recommendations received from the other States, confirming the importance attributed by the Government to the role played by the UNHRC and the mechanisms established by it for promoting and protecting human rights, which are also fundamental for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals set by the 2030 Agenda.
Italy has adhered to all the main international conventions adopted within the UN on human rights:: International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1976); International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1978) and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1978) and their Optional Protocols;; Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1985) and its Optional Protocol; Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1989) and its Optional Protocol; Convention on the Rights of the Child (1991) and its three Optional Protocol;; International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (2015); Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (New York, 13 December 2006 2009) and its Optional Protocol.
Furthermore, within the United Nations system, Italy:
- supports the independent role and activities of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, contributing financially to its Office's programmes;
- collaborates with the Independent Experts and Special Rapporteurs of the United Nations on thematic issues and country situations related to human rights in the world;
- actively participates in the activities of the UN Treaty Bodies responsible for the implementation of international human rights conventions to which Italy is a party, providing information and submitting regular reports.
The promotion and protection of human rights are also an integral part of the "2030 Agenda" for sustainable development, adopted in September 2015 as a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity signed by all the UN Member States. The 2030 Agenda recognises that development is not an end in itself. Peace and security, the protection of human rights and the rule of law are all essential pillars of the sustainable development of humanity. The lack of development and development prospects for individuals and communities weakens the efforts to build peaceful, inclusive and stable societies.
The EU is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities (Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU)).
Internally, on 7 December 2000, the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission adopted the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union which, with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, has taken on the same legal value as the Treaties.
The European Union has thus endowed itself with a defining document on fundamental rights. The protection and promotion of human rights within the EU operates both internally (the defence of human rights within the Member States), and externally, with regard to the EU's relations with third Countries and international organisations.
An important role for the protection of human rights within the EU is played by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), established in 2007 and based in Vienna. The aim of the Agency is to provide European institutions and national authorities with assistance and advice on fundamental rights in the implementation of EU law and to help them to take appropriate measures or define appropriate initiatives.
Internationally, following the expiry of the Action Plan for Human Rights and Democracy 2015-2019, on 26 March the European Commission and the High Representative presented the new EU Action Plan for Human Rights and Democracy (Action Plan), for the 2020-2024 period, which will be formally approved by the Council in the forthcoming months.
The new Plan, which expands the issues reflected in the previous document covering the 2015-2019 five-year period, aims to provide a new operational agenda for the EU, for the promotion and protection of human rights and to strengthen the leading role of the EU and its Member States, globally, in this area.
In recent years, the EU has also adopted Guidelines on the most important human rights issues, including the death penalty, children's rights, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatments or punishments, the promotion and protection of freedom of religion or belief, children and armed conflict).
The EU also publishes an annual report on its policies and initiatives in the field of human rights and democracy at international level. This is complemented by the Annual Report presented by the European Parliament on its activities to promote human rights.
Council of Europe
Italy is one of the founding members of the Council of Europe and among the major contributors to the Organization's budget. The Council of Europe aims to promote democracy, human rights, European cultural identity and the search for solutions to social problems in Europe.
Under the aegis of the Council of Europe, the "European Convention on Human Rights" (ECHR) was signed in Rome on 4 November 1950. The Convention set up an original system for the international protection of human rights, offering individuals the right to invoke judicial control over respect for their fundamental rights through the establishment of a European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The supranational monitoring system provided for by the ECHR, and in particular the role played by the Court, constitute an unprecedented model world-wide.
From November 2021 to May 2022, Italy will take over the six-monthly Presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the decision-making body composed of the Foreign Ministers of all Member States or their Permanent Representatives in Strasbourg.
Institutions of particular importance acting within the Council of Europe are the European Commissioner for Human Rights and the European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission. The Commissioner, an independent and impartial institution, has a mandate to promote respect for human rights in the 47 Member States of the Council of Europe, through permanent dialogue with their respective authorities, in order to promote the development of national structures for the protection of human rights.
The Venice Commission provides legal advice to the Council of Europe Member States, in particular assisting them in adapting their legal and institutional structures to European and international standards on democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Established in 1990, the Commission is composed of "independent experts of international renown for their experience within democratic institutions or their contribution to the development of law or political science". Since December 2009 the President of the Commission is the Italian Gianni Buquicchio.
The human dimension - namely, the set of issues relating to human rights, democratisation and the rule of law - has always played an important role in the activities of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
The main promotional tool within this Organisation is the ODIHR (Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights), based in Warsaw. In addition to providing assistance in the field of human rights protection, elections observation and legal and constitutional advice in countries with economies in transition, the ODIHR also organizes the Human Dimension Implementation Meeting (HDIM) in Warsaw, in the autumn of each year. This is the most important OSCE meeting on human rights and democracy issues, attended by delegations from the 57 Member Countries and hundreds of NGOs and representatives of civil society.
Equally important is the role played by the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media, who functions as a watchdog on defence of the freedom and independence of journalists and media outlets in the OSCE Area.
During the 2018 Italian Chairmanship of the OSCE, at the Milan Ministerial Council in December, the 57 Member States adopted a decision on the security of journalists, 24 years after the Organisation's previous decision on media freedom and 4 years after the latest Human Dimension decision adopted by the OSCE.
Also during the 2018 Presidency, Italy focused in particular on combating all forms of discrimination and intolerance on religious grounds, hosting two complementary international conferences in Rome: one on the fight against anti-Semitism and the other on combating intolerance and discrimination against Christians and Muslims.