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Governo Italiano

Nota dazi USA-UE

 

Nota dazi USA-UE

NOTA INFORMATIVA

Dazi aggiuntivi USA verso UE a seguito contenzioso Airbus

Il contenzioso tra USA e UE presso l’OMC inizia nel 2004 con accuse incrociate di sussidi pubblici illeciti ad Airbus e Boeing. Nel 2011 il WTO si pronuncia a favore degli USA rilevando che i sussidi europei ad Airbus hanno causato danni e perdite di quote dimercato in tutto il mondo per la Boeing.

Il processo di valutazione presso l’OMC, dopo i diversi passaggi previsti, si conclude il 2ottobre 2019 quando l’OMC si pronuncia a favore della posizione statunitense e dà il via libera agli Stati Uniti per l’imposizione di tariffe compensatorie per i danni subiti, fino ad un massimo di $ 7,5 miliardi all’anno di valore dei prodotti importati dall’UE.

Il 9 ottobre lo U.S Trade Representative ha quindi pubblicato nel Federal Register (che corrisponde alla nostra gazzetta ufficiale), la Notice of Determination and Action, il provvedimento ufficiale sull'imposizione dei dazi ai paesi dell’Unione Europea per il caso Airbus.

La pubblicazione include l’elenco definitivo delle disposizioni tariffarie e delle aliquote tariffarie. Il documento è reperibile al seguente link: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/10/09/2019-22056/notice-of-determination-and-action-pursuant-to-section-301-enforcement-of-us-wto-rights-in-large

Nella lista dello USTR compaiono diversi beni e vi è una netta differenziazione in base ai paesi di provenienza. Al momento i dazi aggiuntivi ad valorem saranno limitati al10% su aeromobili civili di grandi dimensioni provenienti da Francia, Germania, Spagna e Regno Unito, e al 25% su tutta una serie di altri prodotti, prevalentemente del settore agroalimentare, provenienti da altri paesi UE, con una differenziazione piuttosto articolate in gruppi e sezioni di prodotti.

L’Italia non è parte del consorzio Airbus ma è uno dei maggiori esportatori europei verso gli Stati Uniti (Il totale dell’export italiano di beni verso gli Stati Uniti nel 2018 èstato pari a $ 54,7 miliardi). Il nostro Paese è interessato soprattutto per prodotti del settore agroalimentare con dazi ad valorem del 25%. Nello specifico, sono interessate 93 voci doganali (v. tabella 1) di cui però solo 47 hanno un valore positivo di export eriguardano maggiormente tre categorie di prodotti: formaggi, liquori/cordiali e carni lavorate.

Il totale dell'export italiano di queste 47 voci (v. tabella 2) era nel 2018 pari a 468.5milioni di USD (dati Dogane USA).

Pertanto, il dazio aggiuntivo del 25% inciderebbe sull’export italiano di queste voci(considerato per ipotesi invariato anche in futuro) per un valore di 117,2 milioni di USD.

Va evidenziato che la lista finale è ridotta rispetto alle liste teoriche precedentemente pubblicate da USTR nei mesi precedenti la sentenza del WTO e sottoposte al processodi audizione pubblica.

Il provvedimento ufficiale pubblicato sul Federal Register chiarisce che l’importo limite di 7,5 miliardi, stabilito dallo WTO, riguarda il valore delle importazioni annuali (trade volume) degli USA dai paesi interessati, che può essere colpito con tariffe fino al 100%. Il documento precisa inoltre l’entrata in vigore dei dazi, fissata tassativamente alle ore 12:01AM del 18 ottobre 2019 per tutti i prodotti non ancora entrati sul mercato americano. Non è previsto un limite temporale per le contromisure americane che potranno restare in vigore o essere modificate unilateralmente fino a quando non si raggiungerà un accordo sui sussidi con l’Unione Europea.

Non si prevede l’avvio di un procedimento di esclusione (waiver) come è avvenuto in altri casi (ad es. dazi su acciaio e alluminio e dazi verso la Cina).

Appare invece possibile, secondo il Trade Act, la legge federale USA che regola la materia, che in occasione delle revisioni periodiche, in particolare dopo i primi 120 giornie successivamente ogni 180 giorni, lo USTR possa modificare il paniere di prodotti e/ola percentuale del dazio, attuando anche il cd. ‘’carosello’’, cioè sostanzialmente una rotazione dei prodotti interessati.

Una decisione in tal senso dipenderà anche dall’andamento del negoziato con la UE e potrebbe modificare gli effetti dei dazi su specifici Paesi o settori produttivi.

Sia UE che Stati Uniti sono stati giudicati colpevoli dal sistema di risoluzione delle controversie dell’OMC per aver continuato a fornire sussidi illegali ai produttori di aeromobili. Nel caso parallelo della Boeing, all’UE in alcuni mesi sara’ ugualmente concesso il diritto di imporre contromisure contro gli Stati Uniti. Un elenco preliminare di prodotti statunitensi da prendere in considerazione per le contromisure è stato pubblicato lo scorso aprile.

La posizione UE al riguardo è che l’imposizione reciproca di sanzioni comporterebbe solo danni alle imprese e ai cittadini su entrambe le sponde dell’Atlantico e danneggerebbe il commercio globale e l’industria aeronautica in un momento sensibile. La Commissione europea ha costantemente comunicato agli Stati Uniti che l’Unione Europea è pronta a lavorare su una soluzione equa ed equilibrata per le rispettive industrie aeronautiche.

L’Unione europea ha condiviso a luglio proposte concrete con gli Stati Uniti per un nuovo regime di sovvenzioni agli aeromobili e una via da seguire per gli obblighi di conformità esistenti da entrambe le parti. Finora gli Stati Uniti non hanno reagito ma i colloqui continueranno.

Si riportano nelle pagine a seguire due tabelle: la tabella 1 con elenco completo dei codici dei prodotti provenienti dall’Italia ai quali si applicano i dazi aggiuntivi; la tabella 2 con il dettaglio del valore di importazione dei prodotti provenienti dall’Italia nell’anno 2018 interessati dai dazi aggiuntivi, e il valore dei dazi applicati a quei prodotti.

Si rimane a disposizione per eventuali ulteriori informazioni o chiarimenti.

TABELLA 1 - ELENCO COMPLETO CODICI DOGANALI RELATIVI AI PRODOTTI PROVENIENTI DALL'ITALIA
Fonte: U.S. Federal Register

HTSProduct description
0403.10.50 Yogurt, in dry form, whether or not flavored or containing add fruit or cocoa, not subject to gen nte 15 or add. US nte 10 to Ch.4
0403.10.90 Yogurt, not in dry form, whether or not flavored or containing add fruit or cocoa
0403.90.85 Fermented milk o/than dried fermented milk or o/than dried milk with added lactic ferments
0403.90.90 Curdled milk/cream/kephir & other fermentd or acid. milk/cream subject to add US note 10 to Ch.4
0405.10.10 Butter subject to quota pursuant to chapter 4 additional US note 6
0405.10.20 Butter not subject to general note 15 and in excess of quota in chapter 4 additional U.S. note 6
0405.20.20 Butter substitute dairy spreads, over 45% butterfat weight, subject to quota pursuant to chapter 4 additional US note 14
0405.20.30 Butter substitute dairy spreads, over 45% butterfat weight, not subj to gen note 15 and in excess of quota in ch. 4 additional US note 14
0405.20.80 Other dairy spreads, not butter substitutes or of a type provided for in chapter 4 additional US note 1
0405.90.10 Fats and oils derived from milk, other than butter or dairy spreads, subject to quota pursuant to chapter 4 additional US note 14
0406.10.28 Fresh (unripened/uncured) cheddar cheese, cheese/subs for cheese cont or proc from cheddar cheese, not subj to Ch4 US note 18, not GN15
0406.10.54 Fresh (unripened/uncured) Italian-type cheeses from cow milk, cheese/substitutes cont or proc therefrom, subj to Ch4 US nte 21, not GN15
0406.10.58 Fresh (unrip./uncured) Italian-type cheeses from cow milk, cheese/substitutes cont or proc therefrom, not subj to Ch4 US note 21 or GN15
0406.10.68 Fresh (unripened/uncured) Swiss/emmentaler cheeses exc eye formation, gruyereprocess cheese and cheese cont or proc. from such, not subj ..
0406.20.51 Romano, reggiano, provolone, provoletti, sbrinz and goya, made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, subject to add US note 21 to Ch.4
0406.20.53 Romano, reggiano, provolone, provoletti, sbrinz and goya, made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, not subj to Ch4 US nte 21 or GN15
0406.20.69 Cheese containing or processed from american-type cheese (except cheddar), grated or powdered, subject to add US note 19 to Ch. 4
0406.20.77 Cheese containing or processed from italian-type cheeses made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, subject to add US note 21 to Ch. 4
0406.20.79 Cheese containing or processed from italian-type cheeses made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, not subject to add US note 21 to Ch. 4
0406.20.87 Cheese (including mixtures), nesoi, n/o 0.5% by wt. of butterfat, grated or powdered, not subject to add US note 23 to Ch. 4
0406.20.91 Cheese (including mixtures), nesoi, o/0.5% by wt of butterfat, w/cow's milk, grated or powdered, not subject to add US note 16 to Ch. 4
0406.30.05 Stilton cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, subject to add US note 24 to Ch. 4
0406.30.18 Blue-veined cheese (except roquefort), processed, not grated or powdered, not subject to gen. note 15 or add. US note 17 to Ch. 4
0406.30.28 Cheddar cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, not subject to gen note 15 or in add US note 18 to Ch. 4
0406.30.34 Colby cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, subject to add US note 19 to Ch. 4
0406.30.38 Colby cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, not subject to gen note 15 or add US note 19 to Ch. 4
0406.30.51 Gruyere-process cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, subject to add. US note 22 to Ch. 4
0406.30.53 Gruyere-process cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, not subject to gen note 15 or add. US note 22 to Ch. 4
0406.30.55 Processed cheeses made from sheep's milk, including mixtures of such cheeses, not grated or powdered
0406.30.69 Processed cheese cont/procd fr american-type cheese (ex cheddar), not grated/powdered, subject to add US note 19 to Ch. 4, not GN15
0406.30.79 Processed cheese cont/procd from italian-type, not grated/powdered, not subject to add US note 21 to Ch. 4, not GN15
0406.30.85 Processed cheese (incl. mixtures), nesoi, n/o 0.5% by wt. butterfat, not grated or powdered, subject to Ch4 US note 23, not GN15
0406.30.89 Processed cheese (incl. mixtures), nesoi, w/cow's milk, not grated or powdered, subject to add US note 16 to Ch. 4, not GN15
0406.40.44 Stilton cheese, nesoi, in original loaves, subject to add. US note 24 to Ch. 4
0406.40.48 Stilton cheese, nesoi, not in original loaves, subject to add. US note 24 to Ch. 4
0406.40.54 Blue-veined cheese, nesoi, in original loaves, subject to add. US note 17 to Ch. 4
0406.90.08 Cheddar cheese, neosi, subject to add. US note 18 to Ch. 4
0406.90.12 Cheddar cheese, nesoi, not subject to gen. note 15 of the HTS or to add. US note 18 to Ch. 4
0406.90.32 Goya cheese from cow's milk, not in original loaves, nesoi, not subject to gen. note 15 or to add. US note 21 to Ch. 4
0406.90.41 Romano, Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, from cow's milk, subject to add. US note 21 to Ch. 4
0406.90.42 Romano, Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, from cow's milk, not subj to GN 15 or Ch4 US note 21
0406.90.43 Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, not from cow's milk, not subject to gen. note 15
0406.90.46 Swiss or Emmentaler cheese with eye formation, nesoi, subject to add. US note 25 to Ch. 4
0406.90.48 Swiss or Emmentaler cheese with eye formation, nesoi, not subject to gen. note 15 or to add. US note 25 to Ch. 4
0406.90.52 Colby cheese, nesoi, subject to add. US note 19 to Ch. 4 and entered pursuant to its provisions
0406.90.54 Colby cheese, nesoi, not subject to gen. note 15 or to add. US note 19 to Ch. 4
0406.90.57 Pecorino cheese, from sheep's milk, in original loaves, not suitable for grating
0406.90.68 Cheeses & subst. for cheese(incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/romano/reggiano/parmesan/provolone/etc, f/cow milk, not subj. Ch4 US note 21, not GN15
0406.90.72 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from blue-veined cheese, subj. to add. US note 17 to Ch.4, not GN15
0406.90.74 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from blue-veined cheese, not subj. to add. US note 17 to Ch.4, not GN15
0406.90.78 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from cheddar cheese, not subj. to add. US note 18 to Ch.4, not GN15
0406.90.82 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from Am. cheese except cheddar, subj. to add. US note 19 to Ch.4, not GN15
0406.90.90 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from swiss, emmentaler or gruyere, subj. to add. US note 22 to Ch.4, not GN15
0406.90.92 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from swiss, emmentaler or gruyere, not subj. Ch4 US note 22, not GN15
0406.90.94 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/butterfat n/o 0.5% by wt, not subject to add. US note 23 to Ch. 4, not GN15
0406.90.95 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, subject to Ch 4 US note 16 (quota)
0406.90.97 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, not subject to Ch4 US note 16, not GN15
0406.90.99 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/o cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, not GN15
0805.10.00 Oranges, fresh or dried
0805.21.00 Mandarins and other similar citrus hybrids including tangerines, satsumas, clementines, wilkings, fresh or dried
0805.22.00 Clementines, fresh or dried, other
0805.50.20 Lemons, fresh or dried
0811.90.80 Fruit, nesoi, frozen, whether or not previously steamed or boiled
0812.10.00 Cherries, provisionally preserved, but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption
0813.40.30 Cherries, dried
1601.00.20 Pork sausages and similar products of pork, pork offal or blood; food preparations based on these products
1602.41.90 Prepared or preserved pork hams and cuts thereof, not containing cereals or vegetables, nesoi
1602.42.20 Pork shoulders and cuts thereof, boned and cooked and packed in airtight containers
1602.42.40 Prepared or preserved pork shoulders and cuts thereof, other than boned and cooked and packed in airtight containers
1602.49.10 Prepared or preserved pork offal, including mixtures
1602.49.20 Pork other than ham and shoulder and cuts thereof, not containing cereals or vegetables, boned and cooked and packed in airtight containers
1602.49.40 Prepared or preserved pork, not containing cereals or vegetables, nesoi
1602.49.90 Prepared or preserved pork, nesoi
1605.53.05 Mussels, containing fish meats or in prepared meals
1605.53.60 Mussels, prepared or preserved
1605.56.05 Products of clams, cockles, and arkshells containing fish meat; prepared meals
1605.56.10 Razor clams, in airtight containers, prepared or preserved, nesoi
1605.56.15 Boiled clams in immediate airtight containers, the contents of which do not exceed 680 g gross weight
1605.56.20 Clams, prepared or preserved, excluding boiled clams, in immediate airtight containers, nesoi
1605.56.30 Clams, prepared or preserved, other than in airtight containers
1605.56.60 Cockles and arkshells, prepared or preserved
1605.59.05 Products of molluscs nesoi containing fish meat; prepared meals of molluscs nesoi
1605.59.60 Molluscs nesoi, prepared or preserved
2007.99.70 Currant and berry fruit jellies
2008.40.00 Pears, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi
2008.60.00 Cherries, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi
2008.70.20 Peaches (excluding nectarines), otherwise prepared or preserved, not elsewhere specified or included
2008.97.90 Mixtures of fruit or other edible parts of plants, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi (excluding tropical fruit salad)
2009.89.20 Pear juice, concentrated or not concentrated
2009.89.40 Prune juice, concentrated or not concentrated
2009.89.65 Cherry juice, concentrated or not concentrated
2009.89.80 Juice of any single vegetable, other than tomato, concentrated or not concentrated
2208.70.00 Liqueurs and cordials

TABELLA 2 - DETTAGLIO PRODOTTI IMPORTATI DALL'ITALIA INTERESSATI DAI DAZI IN BASE AI DATI 2018
Fonte: Elaborazione ICE su dati US Department of Commerce
Valori in USD

CODICE HSDESCRIZIONEIMPORT DA ITALIA ANNO 2018VALORE DAZIO 25%
0403.90.85 Fermented milk o/than dried fermented milk or o/than dried milk with added lactic ferments 22,559 5,640
0405.10.10 Butter subject to quota pursuant to chapter 4 additional US note 6 310,816 77,704
0405.10.20 Butter not subject to general note 15 and in excess of quota in chapter 4 additional U.S. note 6 218,348 54,587
0405.20.80 Other dairy spreads, not butter substitutes or of a type provided for in chapter 4 additional US note 1 34,241 8,560
0406.10.58 Fresh (unrip./uncured) Italian-type cheeses from cow milk, cheese/substitutes cont or proc therefrom, not subj to Ch4 US note 21 or GN15 18,928 4,732
0406.20.51 Romano, reggiano, provolone, provoletti, sbrinz and goya, made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, subject to add US note 21 to Ch.4 399,975 99,994
0406.20.53 Romano, reggiano, provolone, provoletti, sbrinz and goya, made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, not subj to Ch4 US nte 21 or GN15 124,372 31,093
0406.20.77 Cheese containing or processed from italian-type cheeses made from cow's milk, grated or powdered, subject to add US note 21 to Ch. 4 2,793,243 698,311
0406.30.51 Gruyere-process cheese, processed, not grated or powdered, subject to add. US note 22 to Ch. 4 75,535 18,884
0406.30.55 Processed cheeses made from sheep's milk, including mixtures of such cheeses, not grated or powdered 240,057 60,014
0406.30.79 Processed cheese cont/procd from italian-type, not grated/powdered, not subject to add US note 21 to Ch. 4, not GN15 29,183 7,296
0406.30.89 Processed cheese (incl. mixtures), nesoi, w/cow's milk, not grated or powdered, subject to add US note 16 to Ch. 4, not GN15 142,281 35,570
0406.40.54 Blue-veined cheese, nesoi, in original loaves, subject to add. US note 17 to Ch. 4 1,569,753 392,438
0406.90.41 Romano, Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, from cow's milk, subject to add. US note 21 to Ch. 4 75,424,835 18,856,209
0406.90.42 Romano, Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, from cow's milk, not subj to to GN 15 or Ch4 US note 21 105,866,444 26,466,611
0406.90.43 Reggiano, Parmesan, Provolone, and Provoletti cheese, nesoi, not from cow's milk, not subject to gen. note 15 4,070 1,018
0406.90.46 Swiss or Emmentaler cheese with eye formation, nesoi, subject to add. US note 25 to Ch. 4 496,196 124,049
0406.90.48 Swiss or Emmentaler cheese with eye formation, nesoi, not subject to gen. note 15 or to add. US note 25 to Ch. 4 72,684 18,171
0406.90.57 Pecorino cheese, from sheep's milk, in original loaves, not suitable for grating 12,735,956 3,183,989
0406.90.68 Cheeses & subst. for cheese(incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/romano/reggiano/parmesan/provolone/etc, f/cow milk, not subj. Ch4 US note 21, not GN15 156,507 39,127
0406.90.74 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from blue-veined cheese, not subj. to add. US note 17 to Ch.4, not GN15 27,172 6,793
0406.90.78 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/ or from cheddar cheese, not subj. to add. US note 18 to Ch.4, not GN15 12,232 3,058
0406.90.95 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, subject to Ch 4 US note 16 (quota) 13,508,672 3,377,168
0406.90.97 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, not subject to Ch4 US note 16, not GN15 8,656,252 2,164,063
0406.90.99 Cheeses & subst. for cheese (incl. mixt.), nesoi, w/cows milk, w/butterfat o/0.5% by wt, not subject to Ch4 US note 16, not GN15 5,460,986 1,365,247
  FORMAGGI 228,401,297 57,100,324
       
0805.10.00 Oranges, fresh or dried 346,089 86,522
0805.50.20 Lemons, fresh or dried 92,159 23,040
0811.90.80 Fruit, nesoi, frozen, whether or not previously steamed or boiled 573,211 143,303
0812.10.00 Cherries, provisionally preserved, but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption 5,022,732 1,255,683
0813.40.30 Cherries, dried 4,086 1,022
  FRUTTA 6,038,277 1,509,569
       
1601.00.20 Pork sausages and similar products of pork, pork offal or blood; food preparations based on these products 11,547,777 2,886,944
1602.41.90 Prepared or preserved pork hams and cuts thereof, not containing cereals or vegetables, nesoi 42,411,476 10,602,869
1602.49.20 Pork other than ham and shoulder and cuts thereof, not containing cereals or vegetables, boned and cooked and packed in airtight containers 190,683 47,671
1602.49.40 Prepared or preserved pork, not containing cereals or vegetables, nesoi 563,514 140,879
  CARNI LAVORATE 54,713,450 13,678,363
       
1605.53.60 Mussels, prepared or preserved 68,225 17,056
1605.56.05 Products of clams, cockles, and arkshells containing fish meat; prepared meals 9,662 2,416
1605.56.15 Boiled clams in immediate airtight containers, the contents of which do not exceed 680 g gross weight 18,583 4,646
1605.56.60 Cockles and arkshells, prepared or preserved 9,220 2,305
1605.56.05 Products of molluscs nesoi containing fish meat; prepared meals of molluscs nesoi 32,401 8,100
1605.59.60 Molluscs nesoi, prepared or preserved 151,057 37,764
  FRUTTI DI MARE 289,148 72,287
       
2008.40.00 Pears, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi 78,368 19,592
2008.60.00 Cherries, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi 12,254,445 3,063,611
2008.70.20 Peaches (excluding nectarines), otherwise prepared or preserved, not elsewhere specified or included 54,006 13,502
2008.97.90 Mixtures of fruit or other edible parts of plants, otherwise prepared or preserved, nesoi (excluding tropical fruit salad) 284,321 71,080
2009.89.20 Pear juice, concentrated or not concentrated 175,251 43,813
2009.89.80 Juice of any single vegetable, other than tomato, concentrated or not concentrated 3,280,418 820,105
  CONSERVE E SUCCHI DI FRUTTA 16,126,809 4,031,702
       
2208.70.00 Liqueurs and cordials 162,910,063 40,727,516
  LIQUORI E CORDIALI 162,910,063 40,727,516
       
TOTALE   468,479,044 117,119,761

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