The G8 Summit was held in the city of L’Aquila from 8 to 10 July 2009 to show solidarity with the population of the Region, severely hit by an earthquake on 6 April, and with all those around the world who have been touched by natural disasters.
G8 Leaders discussed the interlinked challenges of the economic crisis, poverty, climate change and international political issues. They shared a vision of a world economy that is open, innovative, sustainable and fair.
The following documents have been adopted:
- G8 Declaration "Responsible leadership for a sustainable future";
- G8 L’Aquila Statement on Non Proliferation;
- G8 Declaration on Counter Terrorism;
- Joint Declaration "Promoting the global agenda";
- Declaration of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate;
- Joint G8-Africa Statement ("A stronger G8-Africa Partnership on Water and Sanitation");
- Joint Statement on Global Food Security - "L’Aquila Food Security Initiative" (AFSI).
Leaders acknowledged that their action is strengthened by engaging with the major emerging economies. In 2007 the G8 initiated a Dialogue with Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa, to build a common understanding on key issues on the global agenda. In L’Aquila, Leaders decided to move forward together in the framework of a stable and structured partnership.
With this spirit, the Summit opened in the G8 format, to later expand, starting from the second day, into progressively enlarged meetings.
On 8 July G8 Leaders met to discuss the world economy, development, climate change and international political issues. From July 9th they were joined by Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa, establishing a structured and continued dialogue on a broad range of global issues. Egypt was also invited to participate in the meeting. Discussions progressed with the participation of Heads of International Organizations; all other members of the Major Economies Forum joined them to address trade and climate change. African Leaders and G8 partners discussed the implications of the crisis for Africa. Finally, in a broader format, Leaders tackled the issue of food security.
Heiligendamm – L’Aquila Process (HAP)
G8 partners and Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa reaffirmed their determination to work together to advance the global agenda and identify effective solutions to major challenges. This requires shared responsibility and collaborative efforts among the leading world economies to make progress collectively. To this end, Leaders launched an enhanced, stable and structured cooperation on equal footing among them: the Heiligendamm-L’Aquila Process (HAP). Countries adhering to this Process are committed to strengthening their mutual understanding and translating this common ground into tangible results, thereby contributing to enhance global governance and jointly shaping the future.
Leaders, together with Egypt, discussed a global recovery agenda, future sources of growth and responsible development policies. They will work together to foster a balanced recovery taking into account appropriate adjustments in savings. Policies to improve social safety nets, including healthcare and education, as well as investments in infrastructure and innovation will contribute to a more balanced and sustainable growth model.
A concrete result of this partnership is significant progress on trade. Leaders stressed that open markets are key to economic growth and development – the more so in a period of crisis. Therefore, they reaffirmed their determination to resist protectionism and confirmed the standstill commitment adopted in Washington and London. Moreover, they agreed that a successful conclusion of the Doha Development Round will provide a major boost to restore confidence, support recovery and promote development. The time is ripe to unblock negotiations in order to reach an ambitious and balanced conclusion in 2010 on the basis of the progress already made, including with regard to modalities. To this end Leaders mandated their Ministers in charge of trade to engage immediately to clarify and understand the negotiation to date and to meet before the Pittsburgh Summit, where they will report on progress achieved. Australia, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea also decided to join this effort.
G8 Leaders discussed the state of the world economy and the extraordinary measures taken. While noting signs of stabilisation and improved confidence, they reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the decisions made at the Washington and London Summits. Policy action to support the world economy and repair the financial system will continue as long as needed to ensure sustainable and long-lasting growth. Reforms of financial regulations will be implemented swiftly, ensuring a level playing field. Leaders also committed to tackle the social dimension of the crisis, putting people’s concerns first and promoting global action for employment and social protection.
The crisis has revealed the importance of propriety, integrity and transparency regarding the conduct of international business and finance, so as to strengthen business ethics. To this end, Leaders have agreed on the need to developing common principles and standards, the "Lecce Framework", which builds on existing initiatives of the OECD and other relevant international organizations and which will be brought to the next G20 Summit in Pittsburgh.
International cooperation will be reinforced to fight corruption, tax evasion, money laundering and terrorism financing, through strengthening the implementation of international standards, an expansion of the OECD Global Forum, a peer review process and the development of countermeasures to consider to use against non-cooperative jurisdictions not meeting these standards.
Looking beyond the crisis, Leaders vowed to secure medium-term fiscal sustainability through preparing appropriate exit strategies. They are determined to set economic growth on a more solid, innovative, greener and sustainable path. Leaders also agreed on the need to address excessive price volatility in energy and agricultural products and to improve the functioning of global commodity markets, including through effective regulation and supervision of derivative markets, so as to enhance transparency and combat damaging speculation.
They stressed the importance of fostering an open, receptive climate for foreign investment and promoting innovation, while effectively tackling counterfeiting and piracy.
Leaders agreed that effectively addressing climate change is urgent and sent a strong political message in view of the UNFCC Conference in Copenhagen in December.
Climate change was discussed both in the G8 and in the MEF format.
In the G8 session, Leaders recognised the scientific view on the need to keep global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and agreed on a global long-term goal of reducing global emissions by at least 50% by 2050 and, as part of this, on an 80% or more reduction goal for developed countries by 2050. They also agreed on the need for significant mid-term targets consistent with the long term goals and for global emissions to reach their peak as soon as possible. The active engagement of all major emitting countries through quantifiable mitigation actions was highlighted, as an indispensable condition to successfully tackle climate change.
Leaders discussed the role of innovative technologies and climate financing, with a view to sustain mitigation efforts also in developing countries. They highlighted adaptation needs of developing countries in terms of resources, capacity building and policy support, particularly for the poor and most vulnerable.
The G8 adopted a comprehensive declaration, which set the groundwork for a constructive discussion with the emerging economies the following day.
In the broader session, the 16 Leaders of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate, the European Commission, Sweden, Denmark and the UN Secretary General, found an agreement on key pillars of the Copenhagen climate deal.
Leaders of all major emitting countries reiterated the importance of keeping the increase in average global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, as recognised by the G8, and decided to work together between now and Copenhagen to identify a long-term global goal for substantially reducing global emissions by 2050. Leaders agreed on the need for nationally appropriate mitigation actions by all countries: developed countries will promptly undertake robust mid-term emissions reductions, while developing countries will undertake actions to ensure meaningful deviation of emission levels from business as usual.
The key role of major economies in driving innovation was stressed and Leaders launched a Global Partnership to further such efforts. There was agreement on substantially increasing public investments in R&D, with a view to doubling them by 2015. Underlining the role of the private sector and of international cooperation, Leaders committed to remove barriers and create incentives to accelerate deployment, diffusion and transfer of low-carbon technologies.
There was broad agreement on the need to scale-up climate financing, from public and private sources, including through carbon markets. Leaders discussed international funding arrangements, with particular attention to the proposal by Mexico for a Green Fund.
Participants adopted the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate Declaration, paving the way for a comprehensive global agreement in Copenhagen and agreed to continue to work together in the coming months.
Development and Africa
Leaders focussed their discussion on the effects of the crisis on the most vulnerable. They decided to act resolutely to implement decisions to eradicate poverty and hunger. Acknowledging that the crisis is jeopardising progress towards the MDGs, they asked for an international assessment in 2010 on what is needed to achieve these Goals. They reiterated their commitment to promote global health and expressed their solidarity for all vulnerable people and countries in the face of the global H1N1 threat and the importance of supporting developing countries with respect to anti-viral medicines, vaccines, and other preventive measures.
They decided to implement a set of measures to help the most vulnerable to withstand the crisis: fulfil their ODA commitments, including on aid for trade; keep markets open to re-launch economic growth to the benefit of the poor; enhance transparency and competition among intermediaries to halve transaction cost of migrants’ remittances; strengthen partnership with Africa to improve access to water and sanitation; support innovative financing instruments for health; put agriculture and food security at the top of the agenda, by increasing multilateral financing to support comprehensive country strategies and improving coordination of existing mechanisms.
Leaders recognized that increasing aid without ensuring its quality will not have a real impact on development in the long run. They reaffirmed their determination to implement the Accra Agenda for Action. Moreover, building on the Monterrey Consensus, they agreed to promote a comprehensive, "whole of country" approach, to ensure stronger policy coherence, and the mobilization of all actors, policies and financial resources.
In reaffirming their development commitments, they published a preliminary accountability report and decided to develop a fully-fledged accountability mechanism to monitor progress and strengthen the effectiveness of their actions. A first accountability Report will be submitted at the Muskoka G8 Summit (Canada 2010).
G8 and Africa
On 10 July, the G8 met with Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, the African Union Commission and relevant International Organisations. Leaders resolved to act swiftly to limit the impact of the crisis on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa. They confirmed respective commitments for sustainable development, including with respect to ODA, climate change and peace and security. For the first time, Leaders issued a joint G8-Africa statement, expressing their determination to build a stronger partnership to increase access to water and sanitation.
Concerned by the increasing number of undernourished people and inadequate levels of investments in agriculture, on the same day Leaders of 40 States and Heads of International Organisations convened to unite efforts for hunger eradication. A Joint Statement outlined their common vision and approach to global food security. They committed to mobilize US$ 20 billions over three years through the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative in support of rural development in poor countries. Leaders further promoted the advancement of the Global Partnership on Agriculture and Food Security, to keep agriculture at the core of the international agenda, re-launch investments and boost aid efficiency and in-country coordination, with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders.
International Political issues
The G8 Leaders expressed serious concern about recent developments in Iran. They deplored post-electoral violence in the country, interference with media, unjustified detentions of journalists and arrests of foreign nationals. They warned that Embassies in Iran must be permitted to exercise their functions effectively, and stressed their commitment to find a diplomatic solution to Iran’s continued failure to meet its international obligations with regard to its nuclear program. They condemned the declarations of President Ahmadinejad denying the Holocaust.
Building on the recent developments in US-Russia relations on disarmament, Leaders underscored the central importance of the regime established by the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the commitment to creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons. The United States will convene a Conference in spring 2010 aiming to secure all vulnerable nuclear material around the world, and leading to the revision of the NPT.
Looking forward to a comprehensive peace between Israel and all its neighbours, the Leaders reiterated their full support to the two-state solution for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and urged the parties to rapidly resume direct negotiations. They also called on them to fulfil their obligations under the Roadmap. G8 Leaders remained engaged to fully support the Palestinian Authority including, once a peace agreement reached, through the launching of an ambitious and comprehensive plan that would develop infrastructure and foster economic activities in the future Palestinian State.
Leaders condemned in the strongest terms the recent nuclear test and ballistic launches by the DPRK and urged DPRK to refrain from further provocations and to engage for the early resumption of the Six Party talks.
Leaders confirmed their willingness to assist the Afghan and the Pakistani Governments in meeting their respective challenges with regard to economic and social development, good governance, combating corruption, terrorism and illicit trafficking. The importance of closer regional cooperation in the area was also stressed.
They also discussed piracy and the need to build capacity in the Horn of Africa to better control coasts and territorial waters. They discussed transnational organized crime as well as the fight against terrorism, stressing the challenges of countering radicalization, recruitment and terrorism financing. G8 commitment to build peacekeeping/peacebuilding capacity globally was renewed, particularly with a focus on developing African-led peace support operations.
The Government of Myanmar was also called to release all political prisoners in order to prevent undermining the credibility of the elections planned in 2010.
Leaders welcomed the offer of Canada to host the next Summit at Muskoka in Canada in 2010.