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G7 Japan 2023 | Foreign Ministers’ Communiqué |April 18, 2023 Karuizawa, Nagano

We, the G7 Foreign Ministers of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom
(U.K.) and the United States of America (U.S.), and the High Representative of the European Union,
underline our strong sense of unity as the world navigates grave threats to the international system,
including Russia’s continued war of aggression against Ukraine. We reaffirm our commitment to
collective action to address global challenges, including climate change, pollution, loss of biodiversity,
health, and food and energy security, and to uphold and reinforce the free and open international
order based on the rule of law, respecting the United Nations (UN) Charter. We will continue to work
with our partners to promote open, transparent, resilient, and sustainable societies that champion
human rights, justice, and dignity, and address the needs of the most vulnerable. We reaffirm our
intention to promote human security and continue building a global community that leaves no one
behind. We call on all partners to join us in addressing these pressing global challenges and to work
together to build a better, more prosperous, and more secure future.

1 Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine
We once again condemn in the strongest possible terms Russia’s war of aggression against
Ukraine, which constitutes a serious violation of international law, including the UN Charter. Russia
must withdraw all forces and equipment from Ukraine immediately and unconditionally. We
recommit today to supporting Ukraine for as long as it takes and to providing sustained security,
economic, and institutional support to help Ukraine defend itself, secure its free and democratic
future, and deter future Russian aggression.
We reiterate our support for President Zelenskyy’s efforts to promote a comprehensive, just
and lasting peace, in line with the UN Charter, and we support the basic principles outlined in his
Peace Formula. We also welcome the resolution A/RES/ES-11/6, which was adopted on February 23,
2023, with the broad support of the international community at the Emergency Special Session of the
UN General Assembly (UNGA). We will continue to help Ukraine repair and restore its critical energy
and environmental infrastructure and reemphasize our strong support for Ukraine’s energy security.
Ukraine’s anti-corruption and domestic reform efforts must continue, and we will support them. In
this regard, we reiterate our full confidence in the G7 Ambassadors Support Group in Ukraine and its
role of supporting the implementation process.
Russia’s irresponsible nuclear rhetoric and its threat to deploy nuclear weapons in Belarus
are unacceptable. Any use of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons by Russia would be met with
severe consequences. We recall the importance of the 77-year record of non-use of nuclear weapons
since 1945. We condemn Russia’s continued seizure and militarization of Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power
Plant (ZNPP), which could lead to potentially severe consequences for nuclear safety and security. We
support the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) efforts to help strengthen nuclear safety and
security in Ukraine, including the Director General’s leadership on efforts at the ZNPP.
We remain committed to intensifying sanctions against Russia, coordinating and fully
enforcing them, including through the Enforcement Coordination Mechanism, and countering
Russia’s and third parties’ attempts to evade and undermine our sanctions measures. We reiterate
our call on third parties to cease assistance to Russia’s war, or face severe costs. We will reinforce our
coordination to prevent and respond to third parties supplying weapons to Russia and continue to
take actions against those who materially support Russia’s war against Ukraine. We are determined,
consistent with our respective legal systems, that Russia’s sovereign assets in our jurisdictions will
remain immobilized until there is a resolution of the conflict that addresses Russia’s violation of
Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. Any resolution to the conflict must ensure Russia pays
for the damage it has caused.
There can be no impunity for war crimes and other atrocities such as Russia’s attacks against
civilians and critical civilian infrastructure. We further condemn the unlawful transfer and deportation
of Ukrainians, including children, and conflict-related sexual violence against Ukrainians. We reiterate
our commitment to holding those responsible to account consistent with international law, including
by supporting the efforts of international mechanisms, in particular the International Criminal Court.
We support exploring the creation of an internationalized tribunal based in Ukraine’s judicial system
to prosecute the crime of aggression against Ukraine. In addition, we underscore the importance of
the protection and preservation of Ukrainian cultural properties and heritage damaged and
threatened by the war of aggression.
Russia’s weaponization of food and energy resources has compounded economic
vulnerabilities, exacerbated already dire humanitarian crises, and escalated global food and energy
insecurity. We will continue to provide assistance, including food-related aid, to help affected
countries and populations.

2 Indo-Pacific
We reiterate the importance of a free and open Indo-Pacific, which is inclusive, prosperous,
secure, based on the rule of law, and that protects shared principles including sovereignty, territorial
integrity and peaceful resolution of disputes, fundamental freedoms and human rights. We reaffirm
individual initiatives of the G7 members and welcome those of our partners to enhance their
engagement with the region. We underscore our commitment to further strengthening our
coordination among the G7 on the region, to working with regional partners, including ASEAN and its
member states. We reaffirm our unwavering support for ASEAN centrality and unity and our
commitment to promoting cooperation in line with the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific. We also
reaffirm our partnership with Pacific Island countries and reiterate the importance of supporting their
priorities and needs, in accordance with the Pacific Islands Forum’s 2050 Strategy for the Blue Pacific
Continent, including through the 4th International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS)
in 2024. We welcome and further encourage efforts made by the private sector, universities and think
tanks, which contribute to realizing a free and open Indo-Pacific.

3 China
We recognize the importance of engaging candidly with and expressing our concerns directly
to China. We acknowledge the need to work together with China on global challenges as well as areas
of common interest, including on climate change, biodiversity, global health security, and gender
equality. We reiterate our call for China to act as a responsible member of the international
community. We stand prepared to work together to build constructive and stable relations through
dialogue and to promote global economic recovery and people-to-people exchanges in a mutually
beneficial way. It is in the interest of all countries, including China, to ensure transparent, predictable,
and fair business environments. Legitimate business activities and interests of foreign companies
must be protected from unfair, anti-competitive, and non-market practices, including through
illegitimate technology transfer or data disclosure in exchange for market access. We encourage China
to uphold its commitments to act responsibly in cyberspace, including refraining from conducting or
supporting cyber-enabled intellectual property theft for commercial gain.
We remind China of the need to uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and
abstain from threats, coercion, intimidation, or the use of force. We remain seriously concerned
about the situation in the East and South China Seas. We strongly oppose any unilateral attempts to
change the status quo by force or coercion. There is no legal basis for China’s expansive maritime
claims in the South China Sea, and we oppose China’s militarization activities in the region. We
emphasize the universal and unified character of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea (UNCLOS) and reaffirm UNCLOS’ important role in setting out the legal framework that governs
all activities in the oceans and the seas. We reiterate that the award rendered by the Arbitral Tribunal
on July 12, 2016, is a significant milestone, which is legally binding upon the parties to those
proceeding, and a useful basis for peacefully resolving disputes between the parties.
We reaffirm the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait as an
indispensable element in security and prosperity in the international community, and call for the
peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues. There is no change in the basic positions of the G7 members
on Taiwan, including stated one China policies. We support Taiwan’s meaningful participation in
international organizations, including in the World Health Assembly and WHO technical meetings, as
a member where statehood is not a prerequisite and as an observer or guest where it is. The
international community should be able to benefit from the experience of all partners. We continue
to raise our concerns with China on reported human rights violations and abuses, including in Xinjiang
and Tibet. We reiterate our concerns over the continued erosion of Hong Kong’s autonomy rights and
freedoms, and call on China to act in accordance with its international commitments and legal
obligations, including those enshrined in the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law.
We call on China to act in accordance with its obligations under the Vienna Convention on
Diplomatic Relations and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

4 North Korea
We strongly condemn North Korea’s unprecedented number of unlawful ballistic missile
launches, including the April 13 launch of what North Korea claimed as a solid-fuel Intercontinental
Ballistic Missile. Each of these launches violated multiple United Nations Security Council Resolutions
(UNSCRs). North Korea’s actions, together with increasingly escalatory and destabilizing rhetoric
regarding the use of nuclear weapons, undermine regional stability and pose a grave threat to
international peace and security. We demand North Korea refrain from any other destabilizing or
provocative actions, including any further nuclear tests or launches that use ballistic missile
technology. Such actions must be met with a swift, united, and robust international response,
including further significant measures to be taken by the UN Security Council (UNSC).
We reiterate our unwavering commitment to the goal of North Korea’s complete, verifiable,
and irreversible abandonment of its nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programs, and any other
weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs in accordance with relevant
UNSCRs. We urge North Korea to fully comply with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons (NPT) and IAEA safeguards, and to sign and ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty (CTBT). North Korea cannot and will never have the status of a nuclear-weapon State under the
NPT. We call on North Korea to accept repeated offers of dialogue, including from Japan, the U.S., and
the Republic of Korea.
It is critical that sanctions be fully and scrupulously implemented by all states and remain in
place for as long as North Korea’s WMD and ballistic missile programs exist. We call for greater
international coordination to counter North Korea’s malicious cyber activities.
We remain deeply concerned about the growing humanitarian crisis in North Korea, which is
driven by North Korea’s choice to prioritize its unlawful weapons of mass destruction and ballistic
missile programs over the welfare of the people in North Korea. We deplore North Korea’s systematic
human rights violations and urge North Korea to respect human rights, facilitate access for
international humanitarian organizations, and resolve the abductions issue immediately.

5 Myanmar
We continue to strongly condemn the military coup in Myanmar, remain deeply concerned
about the deteriorating security, humanitarian, human rights, and political situation, and express our
solidarity with its people. We strongly condemn the April 11 airstrike by the Myanmar military in
Kanbalu Township in Sagaing Region that killed a large number of civilians, including children. We call
on the Myanmar military to immediately cease all violence, release all political prisoners and those
arbitrarily detained, and return the country to a genuinely democratic path. We condemn further
exclusion of forty Myanmar political parties, including the National League for Democracy, from the
political process by the Myanmar military. The Myanmar military should create an environment for
inclusive and peaceful dialogue, which includes all relevant stakeholders in the country. We also call
for safe and unimpeded humanitarian access to all people, especially the most vulnerable. We
continue to support ASEAN’s efforts to implement the Five-Point Consensus, including through the
ASEAN Chair and ASEAN Special Envoy to Myanmar. We also reaffirm support for the UN Special Envoy
of the UN Secretary-General (UNSG) on Myanmar and welcome UNSCR 2669 on the situation in
Myanmar, which calls for the immediate cessation of violence, the respect for human rights and
fundamental freedom, and the protection of civilians. We reiterate our call on all states to prevent
the flow of arms into Myanmar. We stress the need to create conditions for the voluntary, safe,
dignified, and sustainable return of all displaced persons, including Rohingya refugees.

6 Afghanistan
We note with grave concern increased threats to stability in Afghanistan and the
deteriorating humanitarian and economic situation. We express our strongest opposition to the
Taliban’s increasing restrictions on human rights and fundamental freedoms. In particular, we
condemn the Taliban’s systematic abuses of human rights of women and girls and discrimination
against the members of religious and ethnic minorities. All Afghans must enjoy full, equal, and
meaningful participation in all spheres of public life, access to life saving humanitarian aid and basic
services, including education, and freedom of movement and freedom of expression. These are
prerequisites for peace, stability, and prosperity in Afghanistan. Unimpeded access of aid workers is
essential for the effective delivery of assistance. We call for the immediate reversal of unacceptable
decisions restricting human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the latest bans prohibiting
Afghan women from working for NGOs and the UN.
We remain concerned about the persistent lack of political inclusivity and representative
governance. We urge the Taliban to take significant steps to engage in credible and inclusive national
dialogue, in which all Afghans, regardless of gender, ethnicity, or religious and political belief, can have
a voice. We recognize the need for conveying unified messages to the Taliban in coordination with
regional countries and other international partners. We underscore the Taliban’s responsibility to
ensure respect for human rights and a dignified life of all Afghans, the country’s stability and recovery,
as well as to prevent Afghanistan from becoming a safe haven for terrorism. We are united in
condemning the recurring terrorist attacks, including those that target specific ethnic and religious
groups. We support the mandate of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), the
UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), and the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of
Human Rights in Afghanistan to work towards achieving peace and stability.

7 Iran
We reiterate our clear determination that Iran must never develop a nuclear weapon, and
urge Iran to cease nuclear escalations. We call on Iran to fulfill its legal obligations and political
commitments regarding nuclear non-proliferation without further delay. We remain deeply
concerned about Iran’s unabated escalation of its nuclear program, which has no credible civilian
justification and brings it dangerously close to actual weapon-related activities. We recall recent
sampling by the IAEA which found particles of uranium highly enriched to 83.7 percent. A diplomatic
solution remains our preferred way to resolve international concerns regarding Iran’s nuclear program.
In that context, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action continues to provide a useful reference. We
take note of Iran’s stated readiness to provide the IAEA with further information and access to address
the outstanding safeguards issues, and its agreement to allow the IAEA to implement further
appropriate verification and monitoring activities. We call on Iran to uphold its safeguards obligations
and stated commitments with prompt and concrete action.
We express our grave concern regarding Iran’s continued destabilizing activities, including
the transfer of missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and related technologies to state and non-state actors and proxy groups in breach of UNSCRsincluding 2231 and 2216. Iran muststop supporting
the Russian military in its war of aggression. In particular, we call upon Iran to cease transferring armed
UAVs, which have been used in Ukraine. Indiscriminate attacks against civilians and critical civilian
infrastructure constitute war crimes. We reiterate our conviction that the transfer of ballistic missiles
would represent a major escalation. We welcome initiatives to improve bilateral relations among
countries and de-escalate tensions in the region, including Iran and Saudi Arabia’s recent agreement
to restore ties. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of ensuring maritime security in the
Middle East’s waterways, including through the Strait of Hormuz and the Bab al Mandab, and call on
Iran not to interfere with the lawful exercise of navigational rights and freedoms by all vessels.
We reiterate our profound concern over Iran’s systemic human rights violations and abuses,
especially with Iran’s efforts to oppress peaceful dissent through threats and intimidation. We
condemn the targeting of individuals, including women, girls, minority groups, as well as journalists,
in and outside of Iran. We call on Iran to take concrete action to address these issues. We strongly
reject Iran’s targeting of dual and foreign citizens, and call on Iran’s leadership to end all unjust and
arbitrary detentions.

8 Cooperation for peace and stability in the Middle East and North Africa
De-escalation, stability, and regional prosperity are key priorities. We call on Israelis and
Palestinians to take steps to build trust toward the realization of a two-state solution, which envisions
Israel and a viable Palestinian State living side by side in peace and security and mutual recognition.
All parties must refrain from unilateral actions that undermine the prospects for a two-state solution,
including settlement activities and incitement to violence. We strongly condemn all forms of violence
against civilians, including terrorism. We reiterate our support for the historic status quo in Jerusalem
and Jordan’s special role in this regard. We welcome the recent meetings in Aqaba, Jordan, and Sharm
El Sheikh, Egypt, between Jordan, Egypt, the U.S., Israel, and the Palestinian Authority aimed at de-escalating tensions, and hope the commitments in the resulting Joint Communiques will be fulfilled
in good faith. We will continue assisting the Palestinians to enhance their economic self-reliance. We
call for the international community’s broad and sustained support for the UN Relief and Works
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.
Regarding Yemen, we reiterate our support to the Special Envoy of the UNSG and call on all
parties, especially the Houthis, to secure a durable ceasefire and work towards a comprehensive,
durable, and inclusive Yemeni-led political process. We also call on the Houthis to lift any impediments
to the delivery of humanitarian assistance, especially with regard to women and girls. We express our
appreciation for the concerted efforts by the Government of Yemen and other countries in the region,
including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and the Sultanate of Oman. We call
on all relevant parties and the international community to support the implementation of the UN-led
plan to salvage the FSO Safer, including swiftly filling the remaining funding gap.
In order to achieve stability and promote unity in Libya, we support the SRSG’s proposal to
identify a pathway towards reaching political consensus and holding free, fair, and inclusive
presidential and parliamentary elections by the end of 2023. We urge all actors to preserve stability
on the ground and to commit to working constructively on the political process.
We encourage and support the Tunisian government to quickly implement its own economic
reform program to address the country’s economic situation and reach an agreement with the IMF.
In Syria, we remain firmly committed to an inclusive, UN-facilitated political process
consistent with UNSCR 2254. We underscore the need for the international community to continue
supporting the UN Special Envoy. We reiterate that the international community can only consider
reconstruction assistance after there is authentic and enduring progress towards political solution in
line with UNSCR 2254. We condemn the ongoing atrocities against the Syrian people. We are firmly
committed to accountability for those responsible for the use of chemical weapons and violations of
international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as
applicable. We continue to urge the Syrian regime to comply with its obligations under UNSCR 2118.
We also confirm our continued commitment to supporting the Syrian people through all necessary
means, including early recovery assistance as appropriate. We call for full and unhindered
humanitarian access to all Syrians in need, particularly through UN cross-border aid for which there
is no alternative in scope or scale.
We stand in solidarity with the peoples of Türkiye and Syria affected by the horrifying
February earthquakes and plan to continue our support in tackling the consequences of this
catastrophe. It is also vital that humanitarian aid reaches all those who require it, safely and
unhindered, as efficiently as possible.

9 Working together with Central Asian countries
We affirm our intent to support the sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of
Central Asian countries. We commit to working together with Central Asian countries to address
regional challenges, including the consequences of Russia’s war of aggression, the destabilizing effect
of the situation in Afghanistan, food and energy insecurity, terrorism, and the consequences of climate
change. We are determined to foster sustainable connectivity, transportation, and trade and energy
links to enhance regional prosperity. Furthermore, we remain committed to strengthening our
cooperation with Central Asian countries on socio-economic development, women’s economic
empowerment, human rights, gender equality, domestic and institutional reforms, and regional
security. We welcome the intensification of regional cooperation of Central Asian countries in the
abovementioned fields and remain committed to support such cooperation.

10 G7-Africa Partnership
We are deepening our partnerships with African countries and regional organizations,
including the African Union (AU). We support African calls for stronger representation in international
We reiterate our strong commitment to supporting governments in the region to tackle the
underlying conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, violent extremism, and instability across
Africa. We are seriously concerned about the growing presence of the Russia-affiliated Wagner Group
forces on the continent, and their destabilizing impact and human rights abuses. We urge all actors to
respect international human rights law and international humanitarian law and reiterate our call for
accountability of all those responsible. We also call for safe, unimpeded access for humanitarian
actors to reach those in need.
In the Sahel, we commend the efforts by the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization
Mission in Mali for helping protect the lives of civilians, in the context of political and security
constraints on the mission. We take note of the UNSG’s strategic review and the parameters set to
allow for the pursuit of the mission. We are also seriously concerned about the spread of terrorist
threats and activities towards coastal countries in West Africa. Acknowledging the need to improve
government responsiveness to citizens’ needs and the importance of free and fair elections, we call
for comprehensive implementation of the transition charters in countries on the path to
constitutional order.
There is an urgent need to reinforce peace and security in the Horn of Africa, meet serious
humanitarian needs, and build resilience in the region. We welcome the positive developments
stemming from the cessation of hostilities agreement between the Government of Ethiopia and the
Tigray People’s Liberation Front, commend the AU for its mediation, and urge progress on transitional
justice and accountability. We call on both parties to remain committed to fully implementing the
agreement, including unhindered access for international human rights monitors. We also call for
international support for the Somali President’s reform priorities and the fight against al-Shabaab.
We strongly condemn the ongoing fighting between the Sudan Armed Forces and the Rapid
Support Forces, which threatens the security and safety of Sudanese civilians and undermines efforts
to restore Sudan’s democratic transition. We urge the parties to end hostilities immediately without
pre-conditions. We call on all actors to renounce violence, return to negotiations, and take active steps
to reduce tensions and ensure the safety of all civilians, including diplomatic and humanitarian
We reaffirm our commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity, and territorial
integrity of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We condemn the advance of the UNsanctioned March 23 Movement (M23) armed group, exacerbating an extreme humanitarian
situation. We urge M23 to end any further advances and to withdraw from all territories it controls.
All armed groups must immediately cease all violent acts and disarm. We demand the immediate and
full implementation of the cessation of hostilities agreed on March 3. We welcome regional
stabilization efforts, including East African Community-led Nairobi process and heads of state dialogue
mediated by Angola, and underscore the critical role of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in
the DRC in protecting civilians and supporting the DRC government’s peace consolidation efforts.

11 Cooperation with Latin American and Caribbean Partners

We highlight the importance of enhancing cooperation with countries in Latin America and
the Caribbean to uphold shared interests as well as values. We are committed to working together to
address economic challenges, natural disasters and climate change, strengthen the rule of law,
enhance socio-economic resilience, promote trade and investments, and address global issues.
We are concerned about the economic, political, and humanitarian situation in Venezuela
that is driving forced displacement, leading to the unprecedented migration flows in the region and
overstretching the hosting countries’ capacities. We call for humanitarian accessto address the urgent
needs of those affected by the multilayered crisis. The way forward lies in Venezuelan-led negotiations
leading to free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections for the benefit of the Venezuelan
We reiterate our commitment to supporting, together with other actors of the international
community, all efforts to strengthen public institutions and resolve the worsening security and
humanitarian situation in Haiti. We condemn the violence and criminal activities perpetrated by
armed gangs and those who support them, and we welcome UNSCR 2653 establishing a sanctions
regime for Haiti. We support the role of the UN Integrated Office in Haiti and call on all stakeholders
to overcome differences and achieve progress in the dialogues on the basis of the political accord of
2022, the “National Consensus for an Inclusive Transition and Transparent Elections”. We reiterate
the importance of restoring stability in Haiti and establishing the conditions necessary to allow for
free and fair elections, as well as facilitating the unhindered provision of humanitarian support to the
Haitian people.
We note with concern the elevated humanitarian and security needs in El Salvador,
Guatemala, and Honduras. These countries suffer from large-scale displacements, rising food prices,
and insecurity challenges. We encourage existing and new efforts by donors, including private actors,
to meet the urgent needs outlined in the respective 2023 UN Humanitarian Response Plans.
We follow very carefully the situation in Nicaragua, where human rights violations and
abuses continue. We condemn the decision of Nicaragua to arbitrarily revoke the nationality of over
300 Nicaraguan citizens. We call on Nicaragua to end the widespread repression of civil society, private
sector and political actors, release all political prisoners, respect its international obligations, and
provide remedies for violations and abuses.

12 Free and open international order
We are determined to strengthen the free and open international order based on the rule of
law, respect for the UN Charter, the sovereignty, and territorial integrity of all states, and respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms. Countries, large and small, benefit from these principles.
We are determined to uphold and protect them, and we stand ready to work with all willing partners
in this endeavor.
The prohibition of threats or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political
independence of any state, in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter, constitutes the
cornerstone of the post-war international system. Yet, territorial ambition is again driving some states
to return to rule by force, so we have redoubled our efforts to uphold peace guided by the rule of law.
The prohibition on the acquisition of territory resulting from the threat or use of force, reaffirmed in
the Friendly Relations Declaration of 1970, should be observed in good faith. We strongly oppose any
unilateral attempts to change the peacefully established status of territories by force or coercion
anywhere in the world. In this regard, sending regular or irregular forces to unilaterally annex a
territory is prohibited.
We emphasize that free and fair trade is key to resilient and sustainable development for all,
particularly the most vulnerable. We recognize that free and equitable public access to scientific
knowledge is integral to solving global challenges. We also recognize the importance of enhancing
international action to detect, deter, and end illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, including
through support to developing countries.
We reconfirm the need to accelerate cooperation with our partners to prevent and counter
terrorism and violent extremism, including terrorist financing and misuse of cyberspace for terrorist
purposes. We reiterate the importance of combating transnational organized crime, including crimes
related to drug trafficking, small arms and light weapons trafficking, human trafficking, and child
abuse, both online and offline. We recognize the significant public health and security challenges
posed by synthetic drugs. We will enhance efforts to stop the illicit manufacture and trafficking of
these substances and to address the public health consequences of substance use. We remain
committed to safe, orderly, and regular migration around the world and will continue to engage in
preventing and countering migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. Our approach will continue
to be human rights oriented, survivor-centered, and gender-responsive, and will focus on identifying
and protecting those most at-risk, as well as prosecuting the perpetrators. We are committed to
working together to strengthen cross-border law enforcement efforts and pursue accountability for
corruption. We commit to ensure strong and effective implementation of our existing obligations and
commitments to counter corruption, including efforts to fight against foreign bribery, and work to
advance our common anti-corruption priorities.

13 Global governance
We reiterate the importance of multilateralism and international cooperation in promoting
peace, stability, and prosperity. We express our support for the vision of the UNSG’s Our Common
Agenda. We believe the UN should be strengthened to address the changing international
environment and challenges to collective security. In this regard, we highlight the voices of the
overwhelming majority of Member States in the UNGA, who have sent a clear signal of condemnation
of Russia’s war of aggression, despite Russia blocking decisions in the UNSC. We welcome the
commitment of France, the U.K., and the U.S. to voluntarily refrain from use of the veto in the UNSC
except in rare and extraordinary circumstances, and hope that the remaining permanent members
will join them. We recall in this context the ACT code of conduct and the French-Mexican Initiative on
suspension of the veto in case of mass atrocities. We are committed to working with all UN Member
States to strengthen the roles of the UNSG as well as the UNGA. We also recommit to the reform of
the UNSC.
Underscoring the shared responsibilities of the world’s major economies to bridge the SDGs
financing gap, we strive to implement the 2030 Agenda and achieve the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs) and recognize the need for accelerated action to meet them by 2030. We are committed
to contributing to the success of the 2023 SDG Summit, the UN Food Systems Summit Stocktaking
Moment, and the 2024 Summit of the Future. We reaffirm our efforts to enhance support for
vulnerable populations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where projections suggest extreme poverty
will become increasingly concentrated, including by promoting the concept of human security in the
new era. We welcome the Chair’s Summary of the G7 Senior Development Officials meeting as
published on March 20, 2023, which stresses the critical centrality of sustainable development efforts
in all G7 work and acknowledges the ongoing revision of Japan’s Development Cooperation Charter.
We welcome the “Summit for a New Global Financing Pact” to be held in Paris in June, aiming at
catalyzing and complementing ongoing efforts to realize the 2030 Agenda overall. We reaffirm the
need for strengthened international financial institutions and underscore the role of multilateral
developments banks (MDBs) in the SDGs achievement, including in crisis affected contexts. We
support the ongoing efforts for MDBs reform, including the World Bank Group evolution roadmap.
We also reaffirm our support for the G20 and will support our Leaders in working towards a successful
outcome at the New Delhi Summit in September 2023.

14 Peacebuilding and peacekeeping
We renew our commitment to strengthening peacebuilding efforts to address increasingly
complex and interconnected security challenges. We must build resilient societies, protect human
rights, support good governance, and invest in people to achieve sustainable peace. We condemn
sexual and gender-based violence, especially when related to conflict.
We highly value the role of the UN and support an integrated approach to peacebuilding and
peacekeeping. We support the Peacebuilding Commission in its role as a convener of relevant
stakeholders and an advisory body to other UN organs. We reaffirm that the UN peacekeeping
operations and special political missions are valuable tools to prevent escalation and the recurrence
of conflicts and to protect civilians where mandated to do so. We further reaffirm our commitment
to and support for the UNSG’s “Action for Peacekeeping” and “Action for Peacekeeping Plus” to
reform and strengthen such operations. We will enhance capabilities and ensure the safety and
security of those deployed, for example through the UN Triangular Partnership Programme. We also
underscore the importance of strengthening the global implementation of the Women, Peace and
Security (WPS) agenda. We reiterate our commitment to contributing to the discussion in the UN on
a “New Agenda for Peace.”

15 Disarmament and non-proliferation
We are committed to maintaining and strengthening disarmament and non-proliferation
efforts for a more secure, stable, and safer world and endorse the Statement of the G7 Non-Proliferation Directors’ Group of April 17, 2023.
Cognizant of the G7 Leaders meeting to be held in Hiroshima, which together with Nagasaki
offers a reminder of the unprecedented devastation and immense human suffering the people of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki experienced as a result of the atomic bombings of 1945, we reaffirm our
commitment to the ultimate goal of a world without nuclear weapons with undiminished security for
all, achieved through a realistic, pragmatic, and responsible approach. In this regard, Japan’s
“Hiroshima Action Plan” is a welcome contribution embodying a pragmatic approach given the
current harsh security environment. We underscore the importance of disarmament and non-proliferation education, while encouraging other leaders, youth, and others to also visit Hiroshima
and Nagasaki.
The overall decline in global nuclear arsenals must continue and not be reversed. The NPT is
the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and the foundation for the pursuit of
nuclear disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. We call for the immediate commencement
of long-overdue negotiations of a treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear
weapons or other nuclear explosive devices (FMCT) while urging all states that have not yet done so
to declare and maintain voluntary moratoria on the production of such material. We underline the
urgent need to bring the CTBT into force. We express our concern over Russia’s announcement of its
readiness to conduct a nuclear test, and we call for Russia’s adherence to its moratorium on nuclear
The G7 is committed to working with all states to further identify and implement measures
to minimize risks of nuclear weapons use and to strengthen arms control. We recall the Joint
Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States issued on January 3, 2022 on Preventing
Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races, and reaffirm that a nuclear war cannot be won and must never
be fought. We call on Russia to recommit – in words and deeds – to the principles enshrined in that
Statement. We welcome the transparency of G7 nuclear-weapon States in providing data on their
nuclear forces and the objective size of their nuclear arsenals. We call on others that have not yet
done so to follow suit. We deeply regret Russia’s decision to suspend the New START Treaty, and call
on Russia to return to its full implementation and U.S.-Russia dialogue on reducing nuclear risks. We
are also concerned about China’s ongoing and accelerating expansion of its nuclear arsenal, and
development of increasingly sophisticated delivery systems, without transparency, good faith arms
control or risk reductions measures. The G7 urges China to engage promptly in strategic risk reduction
discussions with the U.S. and to promote stability through greater transparency of China’s nuclear
weapon policies, plans, and capabilities. Our security policies are based on the understanding that
nuclear weapons, for as long as they exist, should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and
prevent war and coercion.
Those G7 countries which opt for nuclear power, or related peaceful nuclear applications,
recognize that the use of nuclear energy, science, and technology contributes to providing affordable
low-carbon energy, while adhering to the highest standards of nuclear safety, security, and nonproliferation. We recognize the essential role of the IAEA in assisting Member States to build human
and institutional capacities in support of these standards. We underscore the importance of
increasing the transparency of the management of civil plutonium. We call on all states that
committed to reporting annually their holdings of all plutonium in peaceful nuclear activities to the
IAEA to fulfill those commitments. We also support the universal adoption of key safeguards
agreements, including Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, IAEA Additional Protocols and, where
applicable, revised Small Quantities Protocol.
We recall the G7 Leaders’ commitment to evaluate measures to reduce reliance on civil
nuclear-related goods from Russia and to assist countries seeking to diversify their supplies.
We underscore that export controls remain a key instrument in maintaining international
security and stability, and that all States have the legal obligation to take and enforce effective
measures to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of WMD and their means of
delivery under UNSCR 1540. Multilateral export control regimes have a central role in this regard. We
continue to coordinate among the G7 and work with other states in strengthening effective and
responsible export controls on materials, technology, and research that could be used for military
purposes. We reiterate our commitment to review the material and technology that we control,
including by coordinating our respective efforts and supporting work to update multilateral export
control regime lists to keep pace with rapid technological developments. We reaffirm our
determination to work together with our partners to counter the threat of nuclear, chemical and
biological weapons. We reiterate our commitment to ensure that the G7-led 31-member Global
Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction retains its leadership
role in addressing threats posed by weapons and materials of mass destruction.

16 Economic resilience and economic security
We express our concern that threats to economic security are increasing and emphasize the
urgent need to enhance our coordination and cooperation within and beyond the G7. We express our
continued commitment to strengthening economic security, especially for the most vulnerable
countries. We emphasize the importance of honoring international norms and obligations to
safeguard global economic security and resilience, and reaffirm our commitment to building global
economic resilience and responding to harmful practices that undermine the rules-based multilateral
trading system with the WTO at its core. We share the view that resilient supply chains should be built
in a transparent, diversified, secure, sustainable, trustworthy and reliable manner.
We remain committed to increasing our vigilance and enhancing our cooperation to counter
threats that are meant to undermine not only our interests but also global security and stability,
including economic coercion. We stress the importance of equipping ourselves with necessary means
to counter economic coercion and working together with like-minded partners, including partners
with emerging or developing economies, to improve our assessment, preparedness, deterrence, and
response to such threats, based on robust diplomatic coordination.
We also emphasize the urgent need to take measures against illegitimate or forced state-led
acquisition of critical technologies and intellectual property, especially when this constitutes a risk to
the security of target countries. Critical and emerging technologies will have a transformative effect
on the way societies function, and their unexpected, malicious, untrustworthy, or improper use has
the potential to disrupt national and individual security. We reiterate that the design, development,
governance, export, and use of such technologies should be guided by shared democratic values.
We also welcome the G7 Roma-Lyon Group’s efforts to bridge discussions on economic
security and on counter-terrorism and anti-crime efforts to foster coordination and collaboration with
private companies and other non-governmental partners, and to enhance the law enforcement
responses, including preventive measures.

17 Development finance and infrastructure
We reaffirm our commitment to narrowing the infrastructure investment gap by delivering
financing and other support for sustainable, resilient, inclusive, and quality infrastructure. We will
work together to operationalize the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII),
including through country-led partnerships and investments in enabling environments for sustainable
infrastructure development. We aim to focus investments on areas that drive equitable growth and
resilience, including climate and energy, connectivity including ICT and transport, food security, health,
and gender.
As the SDGs are reaching their halfway point in 2023, we need to strengthen the efforts to
revitalize international cooperation to achieve SDGs in a comprehensive manner, and we are
concerned about the increasing debt burdens in many developing countries and crowding out
investments in transitioning to greener, more resilient, and inclusive economies, highlighting the
importance of fair and open lending practices. We aim to enhance creditor coordination for debt
restructuring and to improve the implementation of our existing frameworks through relevant
capacity development.
We are determined to promote transparent and fair development finance practices and will
work together to address the implementation gap of existing principles such as debt transparency and sustainability, internationally coordinated debt treatments and the respect of the comparability of
treatment, fair appraisal, selection and lending practice, and quality infrastructure investment. In this
regard, we call on all actors to adhere to internationally recognized rules, standards, and principles,
including the G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment and the OECD Convention on
Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. We commit to
deepening discussions and fostering cooperation among like-minded partners.

18 Outer space and cybersecurity
Given that our societies are increasingly reliant on space systems, we are committed to
promoting the maintenance of a peaceful, safe, secure, and sustainable space environment and call
on all states to work together for future generations. We reiterate the importance of addressing the
issues of space debris, which is growing exponentially. We strongly support the implementation of
international guidelines adopted at COPUOS and welcome national efforts to develop further
solutions for space debris mitigation and remediation. Supporting UNGA resolution 77/41, we commit
not to conduct destructive direct-ascent anti-satellite missile testing and encourage others to follow
suit. We remain deeply concerned about increasing threats to space systems. We strongly support the
UN Open Ended Working Group on “Reducing space threats through norms, rules and principles of
responsible behaviors.” It is also important to jointly improve capabilities of Space Situational
Awareness to avoid unintentional collision and better share such data.
We support an open, interoperable, reliable, and secure cyberspace. We are concerned
about growing cyberspace threats and remain committed to countering challenges and promoting
the rule of law in cyberspace. We encourage all states to deepen the substantive discussion on how
existing international law, including the UN Charter, applies to cyberspace. We are determined to
implement regional and global confidence building measures, promote internationally established,
voluntary, and non-legally binding norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace, and enhance
capacity building efforts. We are steadfast in disseminating existing international cooperation
frameworks for investigation and prosecution and contributing to ongoing efforts to combat

19 Countering foreign interference including disinformation
We remain concerned by the increasing threats to our nations, economies and societies
posed by foreign interference activities including disinformation, which aim to disrupt our democratic
processes, destabilize our societies, endanger our people, and undermine our institutions and shared
values. We are committed to promoting a free and open information environment without foreign
information manipulation. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening the G7 Rapid Response
Mechanism (RRM) as part of our efforts to collectively safeguard against foreign threats to democracy,
including foreign information threats, alongside other international efforts. We strongly condemn the
widespread use of information manipulation and disinformation by Russia in order to gain support for
its aggression against Ukraine. Access to, quality, and trustworthy information is key to combating
information manipulation and disinformation, and we will redouble our efforts in this regard,
including through supporting relevant international initiatives, such as the Partnership for Information
and Democracy, and efforts by the UN, OECD, or elsewhere. We also commit to encouraging digital
companies to bolster their platforms against any misuse for manipulation, while promoting a free,
open, and secure Internet.

20 Energy security, climate change and environmental degradation
We recognize that achieving energy security and simultaneously accelerating the
transformation towards net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 and halting and reversing
biodiversity loss by 2030 is an urgent task. To that end, we reaffirm our determination to reduce
energy consumption, promote energy efficiency, and fast-track clean, safe, and sustainable energy
development and deployment, while reducing our dependency on fossil fuels, in order to speed the
decarbonization of global energy systems. We reaffirm our determination to strengthen global energy
governance and to ensure liquidity of energy markets through ways such as increased usage of clean
energy, in order to prevent any country from leveraging energy exports as a tool of geopolitical
coercion. We will work to strengthen secure, resilient, sustainable, responsible, transparent, and
diverse critical minerals supply chains essential for net zero economies and clean technologies, and
diversify wider clean energy supply chains to support the global energy transition. Recalling our
commitment to the goal of achieving fully or predominantly decarbonized power sectors by 2035, we
remain committed to working to ensure access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy for all.
We will foster international cooperation to accelerate clean and sustainable energy transitions to keep
a temperature limit of 1.5°C within reach. We stress the importance of objective data and analysis as
well as dialogue among stakeholders with a view to stabilizing energy markets.
Concerning the accelerating impacts of the triple global crisis of climate change, biodiversity
loss, and pollution, and in light of the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we
reaffirm our unwavering commitment to strengthening the implementation of the Paris Agreement
and Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF) in this critical decade, and will work
towards a successful United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP28. We welcome
the conclusion of the negotiations for an international and legally binding instrument under the
UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond
national jurisdiction (BBNJ). We call on all actors to take scaled-up, immediate, ambitious, and
inclusive actions to ensure that their climate commitments are aligned with a 1.5 °C pathway to
achieve global net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 at the latest. We also call on all countries to commit
at COP28 to collectively peaking global GHG emissions as soon as possible by 2025 at the latest,
revisiting and strengthening the 2030 targets in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) as
necessary. We reaffirm our commitment to the developed country goal of jointly mobilizing 100 billion
USD annually in climate finance through to 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and
transparency on implementation. We will continue accelerating our efforts to at least double the
collective provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing countries from 2019 levels by 2025,
and call on others to do the same. We reaffirm the need for robust G7 pledges and the broadening of
the contributor base for the Green Climate Fund’s ambitious second replenishment process. We
commit to aligning financial flows with the Paris Agreement and the KMGBF, and call on other
countries and MDBs to do the same. We reaffirm the importance of Just Energy Transition
Partnerships (JETPs), and welcome progress achieved on the JETP with South Africa, Indonesia and
Vietnam, and the ongoing discussions with India and Senegal.
Protecting people living in climate vulnerable situations, including those in SIDS, Least
Developed Countries (LDCs), and fragile states, is essential for human security and sustaining stability.
We promote the empowerment and protection of groups that may be more adversely affected by
climate change. We will continue to provide further support to advance adaptation and strengthen
the resilience of those people and to take timely and effective actions to reduce risks posed to peace
and stability by climate change and environmental degradation. We recognize the particular concerns
of many countries, including the member countries of the Pacific Island Forum and AOSIS, with
respect to the stability of their baselines and maritime zones in the face of sea level rise. We
emphasize the strong determination to work to successfully implement the decision at COP 27/the
Paris Agreement-CMA4 to establish new funding arrangements for responding to loss and damage.
We reaffirm the urgent need to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.

21 Food security, nutrition, and humanitarian assistance
We reaffirm that multiple factors including COVID-19 pandemic, soaring energy and food
prices, climate change, biodiversity loss, and armed conflicts especially Russia’s war of aggression
have disrupted global food systems including production and fertilizer and energy supply chains,
exacerbating food insecurity and worsening malnutrition particularly in Africa and the Middle East.
We acknowledge growing concerns about poor soil health and fertility, water scarcity, poor
management of water resources, a lack of nutritious foods, and a lack of access to and affordability
of fertilizers and underline the importance of adopting measures to build more resilient and
sustainable supply chains.
We have responded to the food and nutrition crisis by strengthening efforts to prevent and
treat all forms of malnutrition and by stepping up our assistance to affected countries, regions, and
populations, including women and girls who are disproportionately impacted by the food and
nutrition crisis. We also emphasize the importance of the efforts started within the framework of the
Global Alliance for Food Security that was established by the G7 together with the World Bank. We
reaffirm support to the G7 Famine Prevention and Humanitarian Crises Compact. We recognize the
critical importance of the “Solidarity Lanes”, the “Black Sea Grain Initiative”, and the “Grain from
Ukraine Initiative” to support the restoration of Ukraine’s agricultural sector and to prevent further
food system shocks. We call upon Russia to stop threatening global food supplies and allow the Black
Sea Grain Initiative to operate at its maximum potential and indefinitely.
We underline the importance of preventing and treating malnutrition and protecting the
most vulnerable populations and of the right to adequate food. We consider access to affordable, safe,
and nutritious food and the realization of the right to adequate food to be a basic human need. We
affirm the necessity of enhancing agricultural related infrastructure, including processing, storage,
irrigation, and transportation systems. We affirm our intention to accelerate support for particularly
vulnerable countries, promote regional agricultural trade, strengthen food supply management, and
build market linkages for smallholder farmers. We acknowledge that sustained investments in
agricultural development helped reduce global hunger, poverty, and malnutrition. We affirm our
commitment to mobilizing public and private sector partners to help vulnerable countries transform
their agricultural sectors and sustainably increase agricultural productivity as they adapt to climate
change and sustainably, nutritiously and safely feed growing populations and build long-term resilient
and sustainable agriculture and food systems.
We reaffirm our commitment to humanitarian crisis prevention and response to support
vulnerable populations severely affected by multiple crises. We are determined to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance, such as anticipatory action and other
measures, in line with the Grand Bargain and other commitments. We will continue to work with the
international community towards the second Global Refugee Forum in December 2023. We also
recognize the importance of the UNSG’s follow-up Action Agenda on Internal Displacement.

22 Global health
A healthy environment is precondition for human health and wellbeing. We are working
together and cooperating with global partners to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future
epidemics and pandemics. The One Health approach is an essential component of these efforts. We
are determined to build more resilient health systems to improve prevention, preparedness, and
response (PPR) for future pandemics, antimicrobial resistance, and other global health threats. We
reiterate our commitment to draft and negotiate a WHO convention, agreement or other
international instrument on pandemic PPR (WHO CA+), working with other WHO Member States in
the Intergovernmental Negotiating Body. We are also negotiating targeted amendments to strengthen
the International Health Regulations (2005).
We are committed to strengthening health systems and enhancing equitable and timely
access to safe, high quality, affordable and effective medical countermeasures (MCMs), including in
humanitarian settings. To this end, we are committed to supporting the strengthening of an end-toend MCM ecosystem for future health emergencies. We emphasize the importance of promoting
sustainable local and regional manufacturing and delivery based on public health needs. Achievement
of universal health coverage (UHC), with Primary Health Care as a cornerstone, is critically important
for the continued social and economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and to tackle other
health challenges. We commit to ensuring the effective operationalization of the Pandemic Fund,
which focuses on strengthening pandemic prevention and preparedness capacities.
We reaffirm our strong commitment to a comprehensive approach to mental health and
psycho-social support for all and to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights for all
individuals, including through strengthened coordination to advance sexual and reproductive,
maternal, and child health, nutrition, and improved access to family planning. We are determined to
work with others to maximize synergies and ensure ambitious action-oriented outcomes across UNGA
High Level Meetings on pandemic PPR, UHC, and tuberculosis. We emphasize the importance of
cooperative capacity-building efforts, including expanded surveillance and augmented laboratory
capacity to strengthen global biosafety and security.

23 Gender Equality
We reaffirm the G7’s continued global leadership on gender equality and the promotion and
protection of the rights of women and girls in all their diversity as well as LGBTQIA+ persons. We
express our strong concern over the global rollback of women’s and girls’ rights in particular and the
disproportionate impact of conflict and crisis on them. We are committed to the elimination of sexual
and gender-based violence, including conflict-related and technologically-facilitated sexual violence.
We underscore the importance of ensuring the full empowerment of women, as well as their full,
equal and meaningful participation in all political and peace processes. We recognize the importance
of advancing gender-responsive climate action, closing the digital gender gap, strengthening and
formalizing the care economy, and breaking down gender barriers in education. We reaffirm our
commitment to implementing the global WPS agenda in accordance with UNSCR 1325 and
subsequent resolutions.

24 Disaster-risk reduction
We are enhancing international cooperation on disaster risk reduction, recognizing that
many countries are vulnerable to natural disasters and the resulting forced displacement. We fully
acknowledge the importance of capacity building and early warning systems, in line with the UNSG’s
“Early Warnings for All” initiative, adaptable procurement, and social protection systems with a view
to strengthening resilience against disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change. We
are also committed to accelerating international cooperation in line with the Sendai Framework for
Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and welcome the output of its midterm review conducted by the
UNDRR together with states and relevant stakeholders this year. Building on the outcome of COP27,
we underline that such disaster risk reduction efforts contribute to averting, minimizing, and
addressing the loss and damage associated with climate change and to achieve sustainable
development. We stress the importance of taking anticipatory actions to prevent or reduce acute
humanitarian crises before they fully unfold.

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