Pursuant to the Visa Code (EC Regulation No. 810/2009 of July 13, 2009, entered into force on April 5, 2010 – most recently amended by Regulation (EU) 2019/1155 of June 20, 2019) – visas are divided into:
- Airport Transit Visa (Type A) for transit through the international zones of airports located in the Member States’ territories, which does not allow the holder to enter the Schengen Area;
- Uniform Schengen Visa (USV), valid for the territory of the Schengen Area, issued for short stays (type C). The maximum duration is 90 days in any 180-day period, calculated from the date of first entry. There may be one, two or multiple entries. If the conditions are met, Uniform Schengen Visas may be issued with a validity of one year (C1), two years (C2), three years (C3) or five years (C5).
- Visa with Limited Territorial Validity (LTV), valid only for the Schengen State whose Representation issued the visa (or, in particular cases, also for other Schengen States specifically indicated), without any possibility of access – even for transit only – to the territory of the other Schengen States. It is an exceptional derogation from the common regime for USVs, which is only permitted for humanitarian reasons, for reasons of national interest or because of international obligations.
These visas cannot be requested directly by the foreign national but, in a few special cases, they may be issued by the diplomatic or consular Representation when – although not all the conditions required for issuing a Uniform Schengen Visa are met – the Representation deems it appropriate to grant a visa for the reasons described above, or in the presence of a travel document that is not recognised as valid, for particular reasons of urgency, or in cases of necessity.
- Long-stay or “National” Visa” (NV), valid for stays of over 90 days (type D), with one or multiple entries, in the territory of the Schengen State whose Representation issued the visa. Holders of D visas can circulate freely in Schengen States other than the one that issued the visa, for a period not exceeding 90 days every six-month period only if the visa is still valid.